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HSBC Holdings PLC (HSBA)

  Print          Annual reports

Tuesday 26 April, 2022

HSBC Holdings PLC

HSBC Holdings 1Q22 Earnings Release

RNS Number : 2844J
HSBC Holdings PLC
26 April 2022
 

26 April 2022

HSBC HOLDINGS PLC

1Q22 EARNINGS RELEASE

Noel Quinn, Group Chief Executive, said:

"I'm encouraged by our start to the year. Our strategy is on track, with organic growth and good momentum across most parts of the Group. While profits were down on last year's first quarter due to market impacts on Wealth revenue and a more normalised level of ECL, higher lending across all businesses and regions, and good business growth in personal banking, insurance and trade finance bode well for future quarters. We have further reduced costs while maintaining high levels of technology investment, and remain on track to achieve our cost and RWA reduction targets for 2022. Although the economic outlook remains uncertain, the continued upward path of interest rates since our full year results has further strengthened our confidence in delivering a double-digit return on average tangible equity in 2023.

The Russia-Ukraine war continues to have devastating consequences both within Ukraine and beyond. Our thoughts are with the many thousands who have lost their lives, their families and the many more whose lives will never be the same. We are supporting our colleagues in the region while implementing the sanctions put in place by the UK and other governments. HSBC Russia is not accepting new business or customers and is consequently on a declining trend. The vast majority of our business in Russia serves multinational corporate clients headquartered in other countries, and as a global bank, HSBC has a responsibility to help them manage these challenging circumstances."

Financial performance (vs. 1Q21)

Reported profit after tax down $1.1bn to $3.4bn and reported profit before tax down $1.6bn to $4.2bn. The decrease reflected a net charge for expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges ('ECL') in 1Q22, compared with a net release in 1Q21, as well as lower revenue. Adjusted profit before tax down $1.6bn to $4.7bn.

All regions continued to be profitable. In 1Q22, our Asia operations contributed $2.8bn to Group reported profit before tax, and HSBC UK contributed $1.2bn.

Reported revenue down 4% to $12.5bn, primarily in Wealth and Personal Banking ('WPB'), reflecting unfavourable market impacts in life insurance manufacturing and lower investment distribution revenue in Hong Kong, as well as lower Global Debt Markets and Principal Investments revenue in Global Banking and Markets ('GBM'). Net interest income increased in all global businesses from balance sheet growth and interest rate rises. Adjusted revenue down 3% to $12.5bn.

Net interest margin ('NIM') of 1.26% increased by 5 basis points ('bps') compared with 1Q21, and by 7bps compared with 4Q21.

Reported ECL were a charge of $0.6bn, compared with a release of $0.4bn in 1Q21. Increased ECL primarily reflected the direct and broader economic impacts of the Russia-Ukraine war and inflationary pressures on the forward economic outlook, although were in part mitigated by the release of substantially all of the remaining Covid-19 reserves. Stage 3 charges of $0.4bn remain low relative to historical experience.

Reported operating expenses down 3%, and adjusted operating expenses down 2%, as continued growth in technology investment and the effects of higher inflation were more than offset by the impact of our cost-saving initiatives and a lower performance-related pay accrual due to the expected phasing of our profits for the year.

Customer lending balances up $9bn in the quarter on a reported basis and $21bn on an adjusted basis, reflecting growth in mortgage balances of $5.8bn, as well as term and trade lending, notably in Commercial Banking ('CMB').

Common equity tier 1 ('CET1') capital ratio of 14.1%, down 1.7 percentage points from 4Q21, as a result of an $11.2bn reduction in CET1 capital and a $24.0bn increase in risk-weighted assets ('RWAs'). The reduction was driven by a 0.8 percentage point impact from regulatory changes that took effect in 1Q22, and a 0.4 percentage point impact from a $3.1bn valuation loss in equity from financial instruments as yield curves steepened. These instruments are held as economic hedges of net interest income. The reduction also included the share buy-back of up to $1bn announced at our full year 2021 results.

The share buy-back of up to $2bn announced at our third quarter 2021 results concluded on 20 April 2022, resulting in $2.0bn being purchased and cancelled. We intend to initiate the further share buy-back of up to $1bn, announced at our full year 2021 results, after our annual general meeting on 29 April 2022.

Outlook

The revenue outlook remains positive, with growth in net interest income expected to continue as implied market consensus policy rate movements have improved since our full year 2021 results. This is expected to be supported by mid-single-digit percentage lending growth for 2022. While Covid-19-related restrictions in Hong Kong resulted in a comparatively muted 1Q22 for our Wealth business, we expect a recovery when restrictions are lifted. We continue to expect mid-single-digit percentage revenue growth in 2022.

The Russia-Ukraine war has exacerbated inflationary pressures, and increased uncertainty on the forward economic outlook, contributing to higher ECL charges for 1Q22. We are monitoring developments closely, although we continue to expect ECL charges to normalise towards 30bps of average loans in 2022, based on current consensus economic forecasts and default experience.

We are on track to deliver 2022 adjusted operating expenses in line with 2021, despite inflationary pressures, and we expect over $2bn of cost savings to be delivered during 2022 with associated costs to achieve spend of $3.4bn. We continue to target 2023 cost growth at 0% to 2%, compared with 2022 on an IFRS 4 basis.

With an improved revenue outlook, including the potential upside on our net interest income since our full year 2021 results, we continue to expect a return on average tangible equity ('RoTE') of at least 10% in 2023.

Our CET1 position fell from 15.8% at 31 December 2021 to 14.1% at 31 March 2022. With profit generation and continued RWA actions, we aim to manage within our target CET1 range of 14% to 14.5% in the medium term. However, we note that volatility in equity from financial instruments held as economic hedges of net interest income may result in our CET1 position temporarily falling below our target range during 2022, making further buy-backs in 2022 unlikely at this stage. The planned disposal of our French retail operations is expected to adversely impact CET1 by approximately 35bps in the second half of 2022.

 

Key financial metrics

 

 

Quarter ended

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

31 Mar

 

2022

2021

2021

Reported results

 

 

 

Reported revenue ($m)

  12,464 

  11,989 

  12,986 

Reported profit before tax ($m)

  4,166 

  2,664 

  5,779 

Reported profit after tax ($m)

  3,443 

  2,029 

  4,568 

Profit attributable to the ordinary shareholders of the parent company ($m)

  2,803 

  1,788 

  3,880 

Cost efficiency ratio (%)

  66.7 

  79.6 

  65.7 

Net interest margin (%)

  1.26 

  1.19 

  1.21 

Basic earnings per share ($)

0.14

  0.09 

  0.19 

Diluted earnings per share ($)

0.14

  0.09 

  0.19 

Alternative performance measures

 

 

 

Adjusted revenue ($m)

  12,549 

  12,020 

  12,962 

Adjusted profit before tax ($m)

  4,706 

  3,945 

  6,280 

Adjusted cost efficiency ratio (%)

  62.6 

  69.0 

  61.7 

Expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges ('ECL') (annualised) as % of average gross loans and advances to customers (%)

  0.25 

  0.17 

  (0.17)

Return on average ordinary shareholders' equity (annualised) (%)

  6.5 

  4.0 

  9.0 

Return on average tangible equity (annualised) (%)1

  6.8 

  6.0 

  10.2 

 

 

At

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

31 Mar

 

2022

2021

2021

Balance sheet

 

 

 

Total assets ($m)

  3,021,512 

  2,957,939 

  2,958,629 

Net loans and advances to customers ($m)

  1,055,307 

  1,045,814 

  1,040,207 

Customer accounts ($m)

  1,709,685 

  1,710,574 

  1,650,019 

Average interest-earning assets, year to date ($m)

  2,259,198 

  2,209,513 

  2,178,918 

Loans and advances to customers as % of customer accounts (%)

  61.7 

  61.1 

  63.0 

Total shareholders' equity ($m)

  196,293 

  198,250 

  199,210 

Tangible ordinary shareholders' equity ($m)

  155,833 

158,193

157,357

Net asset value per ordinary share at period end ($)

  8.71 

8.76

  8.64 

Tangible net asset value per ordinary share at period end ($)

  7.80 

  7.88 

  7.78 

Capital, leverage and liquidity

 

 

 

Common equity tier 1 capital ratio (%)2

  14.1 

  15.8 

  15.9 

Risk-weighted assets ($m)2

  862,318 

  838,263 

  846,835 

Total capital ratio (%)2

  19.2 

  21.2 

  21.6 

Leverage ratio (%)2

  5.7 

  5.2 

  5.4 

High-quality liquid assets (liquidity value) ($bn)

  695 

  717

  695

Liquidity coverage ratio (%)

  134 

  138 

  143 

Share count

 

 

 

Period end basic number of $0.50 ordinary shares outstanding (millions)

19,968

  20,073 

  20,226 

Period end basic number of $0.50 ordinary shares outstanding and dilutive potential ordinary shares (millions)

20,134

20,189

20,335

Average basic number of $0.50 ordinary shares outstanding (millions)

20,024

  20,197 

  20,191 

 

 

 

 

For reconciliations of our reported results to an adjusted basis, including lists of significant items, see page 29. Definitions and calculations of other alternative performance measures are included in 'Alternative performance measures' on page 26.

1  Profit attributable to ordinary shareholders, excluding impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets and changes in present value of in-force insurance contracts ('PVIF') (net of tax), divided by average ordinary shareholders' equity excluding goodwill, PVIF and other intangible assets (net of deferred tax).

2  Unless otherwise stated, regulatory capital ratios and requirements are based on the transitional arrangements of the Capital Requirements Regulation in force at the time. These include the regulatory transitional arrangements for IFRS 9 'Financial Instruments', which are explained further on page 25. The leverage ratio is calculated using the end point definition of capital and the IFRS 9 regulatory transitional arrangements, in line with the UK leverage rules that were implemented on 1 January 2022, and excludes central bank claims. Comparatives for 2021 are reported based on the disclosure rules in force at that time, and include claims on central banks. References to EU regulations and directives (including technical standards) should, as applicable, be read as references to the UK's version of such regulation and/or directive, as onshored into UK law under the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018, and subsequently amended under UK law.

 

Contents

 

Page

 

 

Page

Highlights

1

 

Risk

16

-  Key financial metrics

3

 

-  Approach to risk management

16

-  Business highlights

4

 

-  Geopolitical and macroeconomic risks

16

Financial summary

5

 

-  Risks related to Covid-19

16

-  Adjusted performance

5

 

-  Climate risk

16

-  Summary consolidated income statement

6

 

-  Ibor transition

17

-  Distribution of results by global business and geographical region

6

 

-  Credit risk

18

-  Income statement commentary

7

 

-  Capital risk

25

-  Summary consolidated balance sheet

11

 

Alternative performance measures

27

-  Balance sheet commentary

11

 

Additional information

38

-  Global businesses

12

 

-  Dividend on preference shares

38

Notes

15

 

-  Investor relations/media relations contacts

38

Dividends

15

 

-  Cautionary statement regarding forward-looking statements

39

 

 

 

-  Terms and abbreviations

40

 

HSBC Holdings plc will be conducting a trading update conference call with analysts and investors today to coincide with the publication of its Earnings Release. The call will take place at 07.30am BST. Details of how to participate in the call and the live audio webcast can be found at www.hsbc.com/investors.

About HSBC

HSBC Holdings plc

HSBC Holdings plc, the parent company of HSBC, is headquartered in London. HSBC serves customers worldwide from offices in 64 countries and territories in its geographical regions: Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America, and Middle East and North Africa. With assets of $3,022bn at 31 March 2022, HSBC is one of the world's largest banking and financial services organisations.

Business highlights

HSBC's purpose is 'Opening up a world of opportunity'. Our strategy, announced in February 2021, aims to deliver against our purpose and our ambition of being the preferred international financial partner for our clients. It has four key pillars:

focus on our strengths - investing in the areas where we see significant opportunities for growth;

digitise at scale - increasing our investment in technology to improve how we serve customers and increase efficiency;

energise for growth - by building a strong culture, introducing simpler ways of working, and by equipping staff with the future skills they need; and

transition to net zero - becoming a net zero bank and helping our customers capture the opportunities presented by the transition to a net zero future.

In 1Q22, in line with our focus on investment and growth in areas of strength, we completed the acquisition of AXA Singapore, which forms part of our effort to expand our wealth capabilities in Asia. As part of our strategic actions to reposition the Group, we completed the exit from mass market retail banking in the US. In addition, we announced the planned sale of our branch operations in Greece as part of the ongoing restructuring of our business in continental Europe, which we expect to classify as held for sale in 2Q22.

We expect to classify our France retail operations as held for sale during the second half of 2022, which will result in the recognition of a pre-tax loss, excluding transaction costs, of approximately $2.7bn.

We are making progress on our net zero ambitions. On 16 March 2022, we announced further details on how we intend to help deliver on our climate strategy and targets. We intend to publish a climate transition plan in 2023. Our climate transition plan will explain for the first time, in one place, how we will implement our net zero ambition and the changes underway across the Group. This plan will bring together our climate strategy and science-based targets for 2030 and 2050 with our approach to embed these into our strategy, processes, policies and governance. We will report annually on progress against the plan in our Annual Report and Accounts. Secondly, we are committing to a science-aligned phase-down of fossil fuel financing, in line with what is required to seek to limit the rise in global temperatures to 1.5°C. Thirdly, we will review and update our wider financing and investment policies, examining the policies critical to achieving net zero by 2050 and consulting with leading independent scientific, international and other bodies.

The delivery of our financial targets remains on track. We continue to make progress with our cost-reduction programme. Cumulatively, since the start of the programme in 2020, we have delivered savings of $3.9bn, with costs to achieve of $4.1bn. We remain on track to deliver 2022 adjusted operating expenses in line with 2021.

At 31 March 2022, we delivered cumulative gross RWA reductions of $112bn, exceeding our full year RWA reduction target. We now aim to achieve gross RWA reductions of $120bn or more by the end of 2022.

Financial summary

 

Adjusted performance

Adjusted performance is computed by adjusting reported results for the effects of foreign currency translation differences and significant items, which both distort period-on-period comparisons.

We consider adjusted performance to provide useful information for investors by aligning internal and external reporting, identifying and quantifying items management believes to be significant, and providing insight into how management assesses period-on-period performance.

Foreign currency translation differences

Foreign currency translation differences reflect the movements of the US dollar against most major currencies. We exclude them to derive constant currency data, allowing us to assess balance sheet and income statement performance on a like-for-like basis and understand better the underlying trends in the business.

Foreign currency translation differences

Foreign currency translation differences for 1Q22 are computed by retranslating into US dollars for non-US dollar branches, subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates:

the income statements for 4Q21 and 1Q21 at the average rate of exchange for 1Q22; and

the closing prior period balance sheets at the prevailing rates of exchange at 31 March 2022.

No adjustment has been made to the exchange rates used to translate foreign currency-denominated assets and liabilities into the functional currencies of any HSBC branches, subsidiaries, joint ventures or associates. The constant currency data of HSBC's Argentinian subsidiaries have not been adjusted further for the impacts of hyperinflation. When reference is made to foreign currency translation differences in tables or commentaries, comparative data reported in the functional currencies of HSBC's operations have been translated at the appropriate exchange rates applied in the current period on the basis described above.

 

Significant items

'Significant items' refers collectively to the items that management and investors would ordinarily identify and consider separately to improve the understanding of the underlying trends in the business.

The tables on pages 30 to 35 detail the effects of significant items on each of our global business segments and geographical regions during 1Q22, 4Q21 and 1Q21.

Adjusted performance - foreign currency translation of significant items

The foreign currency translation differences related to significant items are presented as a separate component of significant items. This is considered a more meaningful presentation as it allows better comparison of period-on-period movements in performance.

Global business performance

The Group Chief Executive, supported by the rest of the Group Executive Committee ('GEC'), is considered to be the Chief Operating Decision Maker ('CODM') for the purposes of identifying the Group's reportable segments.

The Group Chief Executive and the rest of the GEC review operating activity on a number of bases, including by global business and geographical region. Our global businesses - Wealth and Personal Banking, Commercial Banking and Global Banking and Markets - along with the Corporate Centre are our reportable segments under IFRS 8 'Operating Segments'. Global business results are assessed by the CODM on the basis of adjusted performance, which removes the effects of significant items and currency translation from reported results. We therefore present these results on an adjusted basis as required by IFRSs.

A reconciliation of the Group's adjusted results to the Group's reported results is presented on page 29. Supplementary reconciliations of adjusted to reported results by global business are presented on pages 30 to 32 for information purposes.

Management view of adjusted revenue

Our global business segment commentary includes tables that provide breakdowns of adjusted revenue by major product. These reflect the basis on which revenue performance of the businesses is assessed and managed.

Summary consolidated income statement

 

 

Quarter ended

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

31 Mar

 

2022

2021

2021

 

$m

$m

$m

Net interest income

  6,997 

  6,781 

  6,514 

Net fee income

  3,126 

  3,101 

  3,463 

Net income from financial instruments held for trading or managed on a fair value basis

  2,320 

  1,835 

  2,409 

Net income/(expense) from assets and liabilities of insurance businesses, including related derivatives, measured at fair value through profit or loss

  (1,245)

  1,228 

  1,164 

Changes in fair value of designated debt and related derivatives1

  (78)

  (35)

  (113)

Changes in fair value of other financial instruments mandatorily measured at fair value through profit or loss

  71 

  112

  257

Gains less losses from financial investments

  43 

  14

  307

Net insurance premium income

  3,612 

  2,488 

  2,877 

Other operating income

  365 

  163

  (73)

Total operating income

  15,211 

  15,687 

  16,805 

Net insurance claims and benefits paid and movement in liabilities to policyholders

  (2,747)

  (3,698)

  (3,819)

Net operating income before change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges2

  12,464 

  11,989 

  12,986 

Change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges

  (642)

  (450)

  435

Net operating income

  11,822 

  11,539 

  13,421 

Total operating expenses excluding impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets

  (8,307)

  (8,933)

  (8,527)

Impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets

  (5)

  (611)

  - 

Operating profit

  3,510 

  1,995 

  4,894 

Share of profit/(loss) in associates and joint ventures

  656 

  669

  885

Profit before tax

  4,166 

  2,664 

  5,779 

Tax expense

  (723)

  (635)

  (1,211)

Profit after tax

  3,443 

  2,029 

  4,568 

Attributable to:

 

 

 

-  ordinary shareholders of the parent company

  2,803 

  1,788 

  3,880 

-  preference shareholders of the parent company

  - 

  - 

  7

-  other equity holders

  488 

  142

  454

-  non-controlling interests

  152 

  99

  227

Profit after tax

  3,443 

  2,029 

  4,568 

 

$

$

$

Basic earnings per share

  0.14 

  0.09 

0.19

Diluted earnings per share

  0.14 

  0.09 

0.19

Dividend per ordinary share (paid in the period)

  - 

  - 

  - 

 

%

%

%

Return on average ordinary shareholders' equity (annualised)

  6.5 

  4.0 

  9.0 

Return on average tangible equity (annualised)

  6.8 

  6.0 

  10.2 

Cost efficiency ratio

  66.7 

  79.6 

  65.7 

1  The debt instruments, issued for funding purposes, are designated under the fair value option to reduce an accounting mismatch.

2  Net operating income before change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges, also referred to as revenue.

 

Distribution of results by global business and geographical region

 

Distribution of results by global business

 

Quarter ended

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

31 Mar

 

2022

2021

2021

 

$m

$m

$m

Adjusted revenue1

 

 

 

Wealth and Personal Banking

  5,231 

  5,267 

  5,566 

Commercial Banking

  3,533 

  3,365 

  3,249 

Global Banking and Markets

  4,012 

  3,492 

  4,176 

Corporate Centre

  (227)

  (104)

  (29)

Total

  12,549 

  12,020 

  12,962 

Adjusted profit before tax

 

 

 

Wealth and Personal Banking

  1,123 

  1,279 

  1,880 

Commercial Banking

  1,821 

  1,380 

  1,760 

Global Banking and Markets

  1,233 

  601

  1,898 

Corporate Centre

  529 

  685

  742

Total

  4,706 

  3,945 

  6,280 

1  Adjusted net operating income before change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges including the effects of foreign currency translation differences and significant items, also referred to as adjusted revenue.

Distribution of results by geographical region

 

Quarter ended

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

31 Mar

 

2022

2021

2021

 

$m

$m

$m

Reported profit/(loss) before tax

 

 

 

Europe

  253 

  669

  997

Asia

  2,804 

  2,010 

  3,758 

Middle East and North Africa

  385 

  322

  337

North America

  553 

  211

  484

Latin America

  171 

  (548)

  203

Total

  4,166 

  2,664 

  5,779 

Adjusted profit/(loss) before tax

 

 

 

Europe

  746 

  1,030 

  1,448 

Asia

  2,857 

  2,138 

  3,770 

Middle East and North Africa

  396 

  328

  327

North America

  515 

  376

  522

Latin America

  192 

  73

  213

Total

  4,706 

  3,945 

  6,280 

 

 

 

 

Tables showing adjusted profit before tax by global business and region are presented to support the commentary on adjusted performance on the following pages.

The tables on pages 30 to 35 reconcile reported to adjusted results for each of our global business segments and geographical regions.

Income statement commentary

 

Group

1Q22 compared with 1Q21 - reported results

Movement in reported profit before tax compared with 1Q21

 

Quarter ended

 

31 Mar

31 Mar

Variance

 

2022

2021

1Q22 vs. 1Q21

 

$m

$m

$m

%

Revenue

  12,464 

  12,986 

  (522)

(4)

ECL

  (642)

  435

  (1,077)

>(100)

Operating expenses

  (8,312)

  (8,527)

  215 

3

Share of profit/(loss) from associates and JVs

  656 

  885

  (229)

(26)

Profit before tax

  4,166 

  5,779 

  (1,613)

(28)

Tax expense

  (723)

  (1,211)

  488 

40

Profit after tax

  3,443 

  4,568 

  (1,125)

(25)

 

Reported profit

Reported profit after tax of $3.4bn was $1.1bn or 25% lower than in 1Q21.

Reported profit before tax of $4.2bn was $1.6bn or 28% lower, primarily from reported net ECL charges in 1Q22 notably due to the impact of the Russia-Ukraine war and higher inflation, compared with net ECL releases in 1Q21. Reported revenue fell, primarily in Wealth, although this was in part mitigated by the positive impact of rising interest rates. Our reported share of profit from associates and joint ventures also decreased.

The fall in reported profit before tax was mainly in WPB and GBM, reflecting higher ECL and lower revenue due to adverse market conditions.

IFRS 17 'Insurance Contracts' sets the requirements that an entity should apply in accounting for insurance contracts it issues and reinsurance contracts it holds. IFRS 17 is effective from 1 January 2023 and could have a significant adverse impact on the profitability of our insurance business. For further details on the impact of IFRS 17 on the results of our insurance operations, see page 318 of our Annual Report and Accounts 2021.

Reported revenue

Reported revenue of $12.5bn was $0.5bn or 4% lower, and included adverse fair value movements of certain volatile items:

In WPB, adverse market impacts in life insurance manufacturing of $275m primarily reflected weaker performances in equity markets, compared with a favourable movement of $76m in 1Q21.

In GBM, there were adverse credit and funding valuation adjustments of $32m, compared with a favourable movement of $33m in 1Q21.

Investment distribution revenue fell in WPB, as muted customer sentiment led to lower activity in equity markets, which compared with a strong 1Q21, and as Covid-19-related restrictions in Hong Kong resulted in the temporary closure of parts of our branch network. In GBM, Global Debt Markets revenue fell and a reduction in Principal Investments revenue was driven by lower revaluation gains relative to 1Q21.

These reductions were partly offset by higher net interest income from balance sheet growth and the impact of interest rate rises, mainly in Global Liquidity and Cash Management ('GLCM') in CMB and GBM, and Personal Banking in WPB. Global Foreign Exchange in GBM revenue benefited from a strong trading performance, while revenue performance in Global Trade and Receivables Finance ('GTRF') also remained strong, notably in CMB, as we grew balances during the quarter.

Significant items in the period included lower adverse fair value movements on financial instruments of $0.1bn and reduced restructuring and other related costs of $0.1bn due to a disposal gain. Foreign currency translation differences resulted in an adverse movement of $0.3bn.

Reported ECL

Reported ECL were a net charge of $0.6bn, compared with a net release of $0.4bn in 1Q21, and included stage 3 charges of $0.4bn, which remain low relative to historical experience. The economic risks impacting ECL allowances evolved during the period, with Covid-19 risks abating in most regions, but downside risks rising from the broader impacts of the Russia-Ukraine war and higher inflation. Overall our stage 1 and stage 2 coverage remained broadly unchanged compared with 31 December 2021, and included an additional judgemental management adjustment of $250m to reflect heightened economic uncertainty from the combined effects of inflationary risks, the second-order impacts of the Russia-Ukraine war, tighter Covid-19-related restrictions in Asia and potential sovereign downgrades. Additional allowances were also recognised relating to direct Russia exposures and the commercial real estate sector in mainland China. This compared with a net release in 1Q21 relating to Covid-19-related allowances previously built up in 2020.

Reported operating expenses

Reported operating expenses of $8.3bn were $0.2bn or 3% lower than 1Q21, and included the impact of our cost-saving initiatives of $0.6bn and a lower performance-related pay accrual, which reflected the expected phasing of our profits for the year. These reductions more than offset increases from our continued investment in technology of $0.2bn, including investments in our digital capabilities, and inflationary impacts.

Restructuring and other related costs increased by $0.1bn, while foreign currency translation differences resulted in a favourable impact of $0.2bn.

Reported share of profit from associates and JVs

Reported share of profit from associates and joint ventures of $0.7bn was $0.2bn or 26% lower than in 1Q21, primarily as 1Q21 included a higher share of profit from Business Growth Fund ('BGF') due to the recovery in asset valuations.

Tax expense

The effective tax rate for 1Q22 of 17.4% was lower than the 21.0% for 1Q21. The effective tax rate for 1Q22 was decreased by the remeasurement of deferred tax balances following the substantive enactment of legislation to reduce the rate of the UK banking surcharge from 8% to 3% from 1 April 2023.

Group

1Q22 compared with 1Q21 - adjusted results

Movement in adjusted profit before tax compared with 1Q21

 

Quarter ended

 

31 Mar

31 Mar

Variance

 

2022

2021

1Q22 vs. 1Q21

 

$m

$m

$m

%

Revenue

  12,549 

  12,962 

  (413)

(3)

ECL

  (642)

  420

  (1,062)

>(100)

Operating expenses

  (7,857)

  (7,998)

  141 

2

Share of profit from associates and JVs

  656 

  896

  (240)

(27)

Profit before tax

  4,706 

  6,280 

  (1,574)

(25)

 

Adjusted profit

Adjusted profit before tax of $4.7bn was $1.6bn or 25% lower than in 1Q21, from net ECL charges in 1Q22, notably due to the impact of the Russia-Ukraine war and higher inflation, compared with net ECL releases in 1Q21. Adjusted revenue fell, primarily in Wealth, in part mitigated by the impact of rising interest rates. Our share of profit from associates and joint ventures also decreased.

Adjusted revenue

Adjusted revenue of $12.5bn was $0.4bn or 3% lower than in 1Q21. The reduction included net adverse movements in market impacts in life insurance manufacturing in WPB of $342m, reflecting weaker performances in equity markets. Investment distribution revenue in WPB fell as muted customer sentiment led to lower activity in equity markets, which compared with a strong 1Q21, and as Covid-19-related restrictions in Hong Kong resulted in the temporary closure of parts of our branch network. In GBM, Global Debt Markets revenue fell and a reduction in Principal Investments revenue was driven by lower revaluation gains relative to 1Q21.

These reductions were partly offset by higher net interest income from balance sheet growth and the positive impact of interest rate rises, mainly in GLCM in CMB and GBM, and in Personal Banking in WPB. Global Foreign Exchange in GBM revenue benefited from a strong trading performance, while revenue performance in GTRF also remained strong, notably in CMB, as we grew balances during the quarter.

Revenue relating to Markets Treasury fell by $0.3bn due to lower disposal gains. This revenue is allocated to our global businesses.

Adjusted ECL

Adjusted ECL, which removes the period-on-period effects of foreign currency translation differences, were a net charge of $0.6bn, compared with a net release of $0.4bn in 1Q21. The economic risks impacting ECL allowances evolved during the period, with Covid-19 risks abating in most regions, but downside risks rising from the broader impacts of the Russia-Ukraine war and higher inflation. Overall our stage 1 and stage 2 coverage remained broadly unchanged compared with 31 December 2021, and included an additional judgemental management adjustment of $250m to reflect heightened economic uncertainty from the combined effects of inflationary risks, the second-order impacts of the Russia-Ukraine war, tighter Covid-19-related restrictions in Asia and potential sovereign downgrades. Additional allowances were also recognised relating to direct Russia exposures and the commercial real estate sector in mainland China. This compared with the net release in 1Q21 of Covid-19-related allowances previously built up in 2020.

Adjusted operating expenses

Adjusted operating expenses of $7.9bn were $0.1bn or 2% lower, and included the impact of our cost-saving initiatives of $0.6bn and a lower performance-related pay accrual reflecting the expected phasing of our profits for the year. These reductions more than offset increases from our continued investment in technology of $0.2bn, including investments in our digital capabilities, and inflationary impacts.

Adjusted share of profit from associates and JVs

Adjusted share of profit from associates and joint ventures of $0.7bn decreased by $0.2bn or 27%, primarily as 1Q21 included a higher share of profit from BGF due to the recovery in asset valuations.

 

Group

1Q22 compared with 4Q21 - reported results

Movement in reported profit before tax compared with 4Q21

 

Quarter ended

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

Variance

 

2022

2021

1Q22 vs. 4Q21

 

$m

$m

$m

%

Revenue

  12,464 

  11,989 

  475 

  4 

ECL

  (642)

  (450)

  (192)

  (43) 

Operating expenses

  (8,312)

  (9,544)

  1,232 

  13 

Share of profit from associates and JVs

  656 

  669

  (13)

  (2)

Profit before tax

  4,166 

  2,664 

  1,502 

  56 

Tax expense

  (723)

  (635)

  (88)

  (14)

Profit after tax

  3,443 

  2,029 

  1,414 

  70 

 

Reported profit

Reported profit after tax of $3.4bn was $1.4bn or 70% higher than in 4Q21.

Reported profit before tax of $4.2bn was $1.5bn or 56% higher than in 4Q21. The increase was due to higher reported revenue, primarily in GBM's Markets and Securities Services ('MSS') business, and lower reported operating expenses, including the non-recurrence of a $0.6bn impairment of goodwill related to our WPB business in Latin America. Reported ECL charges rose.

Reported profit before tax increased in all our global businesses, although it fell in Corporate Centre.

Reported revenue

Reported revenue of $12.5bn was $0.5bn or 4% higher than in 4Q21. This primarily reflected a seasonal increase in client activity and higher volatility in GBM's MSS business. There was also a seasonal increase in investment distribution revenue in WPB despite the temporary closure of parts of our branch network due to Covid-19-related restrictions in Hong Kong. Net interest income increased, reflecting balance sheet growth together with the impact of rising interest rates, notably in WPB and in GLCM in CMB.

These factors were partly offset by fair value movements in certain volatile items in WPB and GBM:

In WPB, unfavourable market impacts in life insurance manufacturing of $275m compared with favourable movements in 4Q21 of $130m.

In GBM, there were adverse credit and funding valuation adjustments movements, as adverse adjustments of $32m compared with favourable adjustments of $44m in 4Q21.

Reported revenue included the adverse impact of foreign currency translation differences of $0.1bn.

Reported ECL

Reported ECL were a net charge of $0.6bn, which was $0.2bn or 43% higher compared with 4Q21. The economic risks impacting ECL allowances evolved during the period, with Covid-19 risks abating in most regions, but downside risks rising from the broader impacts of the Russia-Ukraine war and higher inflation. Overall our stage 1 and stage 2 coverage remained broadly unchanged compared with 31 December 2021, and included an additional judgemental management adjustment of $250m to reflect heightened economic uncertainty from the combined effects of inflationary risks, the second-order impacts of the Russia-Ukraine war, tighter Covid-19-related restrictions in Asia and potential sovereign downgrades. Additional allowances were also recognised relating to direct Russia exposures and the commercial real estate sector in mainland China. The net ECL charge in 4Q21 was primarily driven by an increase in allowances related to developments in China's commercial real estate sector.

For further details on the calculation of ECL, including the measurement uncertainties and significant judgements applied to such calculations, the impact of the economic scenarios and management judgemental adjustments, see pages 19 to 22.

Reported operating expenses

Reported operating expenses of $8.3bn were $1.2bn or 13% lower than in 4Q21, driven by the non-recurrence of a $0.6bn impairment of goodwill related to our WPB business in Latin America to reflect the macroeconomic outlook, and as 4Q21 included a seasonal increase in operating expenses, and a net UK bank levy charge of $0.1bn. Restructuring and other related costs fell by $0.1bn.

Reported share of profit from associates and JVs

Reported share of profit in associates and joint ventures of $0.7bn was 2% lower, as reductions in The Saudi British Bank ('SABB') and BGF were largely offset by an increase in the share of profit from Bank of Communications Co., Limited ('BoCom').

Group

1Q22 compared with 4Q21 - adjusted results

Movement in adjusted profit before tax compared with 4Q21

 

Quarter ended

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

Variance

 

2022

2021

1Q22 vs. 4Q21

 

$m

$m

$m

%

Revenue

  12,549 

  12,020 

  529 

  4 

ECL

  (642)

  (451)

  (191)

  (42)

Operating expenses

  (7,857)

  (8,296)

  439 

  5 

Share of profit from associates and JVs

  656 

  672

  (16)

  (2)

Profit before tax

  4,706 

  3,945 

  761 

  19 

 

Adjusted profit

Adjusted profit before tax of $4.7bn was $0.8bn or 19% higher than in 4Q21, reflecting higher adjusted revenue, primarily in GBM's MSS business, as well as lower adjusted expenses following a seasonal increase in 4Q21, while adjusted ECL charges rose.

Adjusted revenue

Adjusted revenue of $12.5bn was $0.5bn or 4% higher than in 4Q21. The increase primarily reflected a seasonal increase in client activity and higher market volatility in GBM's MSS business. There was also seasonally higher revenue in investment distribution in WPB, despite the temporary closures of part of our branch network due to Covid-19-related restrictions in Hong Kong. Net interest income increased, which included balance sheet growth together with the impact of rising interest rates, notably in WPB and in GLCM in CMB.

There were unfavourable movements of market impacts in life insurance manufacturing in WPB of $0.4bn and adverse credit and funding valuation adjustment movements in GBM of $0.1bn.

Adjusted ECL

Adjusted ECL were a net charge of $0.6bn, which was $0.2bn or 42% higher compared with 4Q21. The economic risks impacting ECL allowances evolved during the period, with Covid-19 risks abating in most regions, but downside risks rising from the broader impacts of the Russia-Ukraine war and higher inflation. Overall our stage 1 and stage 2 coverage remained broadly unchanged compared with 31 December 2021, and included an additional judgemental management adjustment of $250m to reflect heightened economic uncertainty from the combined effects of inflationary risks, the second-order impacts of the Russia-Ukraine war, tighter Covid-19-related restrictions in Asia and potential sovereign downgrades. Additional allowances were also recognised relating to direct Russia exposures and the commercial real estate sector in mainland China. The net ECL charge in 4Q21 included an increase in allowances in relation to developments in China's commercial real estate sector.

Adjusted operating expenses

Adjusted operating expenses of $7.9bn were $0.4bn or 5% lower, primarily as 4Q21 included a seasonal increase in operating expenses, and a net UK bank levy charge of $0.1bn.

The number of employees expressed in full-time equivalent staff ('FTE') at 31 March 2022 was 219,763, an increase of 66 compared with 31 December 2021. The number of contractors at 31 March 2022 was 6,537, an increase of 345, primarily as a result of our growth and transformation initiatives.

Adjusted share of profit from associates and JVs

Adjusted share of profit from associates and joint ventures of $0.7bn was 2% lower than in 4Q21, as reductions in SABB and BGF were largely offset by an increase in the share of profit from BoCom.

Net interest margin

 

Quarter ended

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

31 Mar

 

2022

2021

2021

 

$m

$m

$m

Net interest income

  6,997 

  6,781 

  6,514 

Average interest-earning assets

  2,259,198 

  2,251,433 

  2,178,918 

 

%

%

%

Gross interest yield1

  1.74 

  1.62 

  1.67 

Less: gross interest payable1

  (0.59)

  (0.52)

  (0.56)

Net interest spread2

  1.15 

  1.10 

  1.11 

Net interest margin3

  1.26 

  1.19 

  1.21 

1  Gross interest yield is the average annualised interest rate earned on average interest-earning assets ('AIEA'). Gross interest payable is the average annualised interest cost as a percentage of average interest-bearing liabilities.

2  Net interest spread is the difference between the average annualised interest rate earned on AIEA, net of amortised premiums and loan fees, and the average annualised interest rate payable on average interest-bearing funds.

3  Net interest margin is net interest income expressed as an annualised percentage of AIEA.

Net interest margin ('NIM') of 1.26% was 5 basis points ('bps') higher compared with 1Q21, driven by higher market interest rates. The yield on AIEA increased by 7bps, partly offset by a 3bps rise in the funding cost of average interest-bearing liabilities. The increase in NIM in 1Q22 included the adverse impact of significant items and foreign currency translation differences. Excluding these, NIM increased by 6bps.

NIM was up 7bps compared with 4Q21, predominantly driven by improved asset yields as a result of higher interest rates.

Summary consolidated balance sheet

 

 

At

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

 

2022

2021

 

$m

$m

Assets

 

 

Cash and balances at central banks

  389,257 

  403,018 

Trading assets

  228,810 

  248,842 

Financial assets designated and otherwise mandatorily measured at fair value through profit or loss

  47,745 

  49,804 

Derivatives

  223,371 

  196,882 

Loans and advances to banks

  90,161 

  83,136 

Loans and advances to customers1

  1,055,307 

  1,045,814 

Reverse repurchase agreements - non-trading

  245,575 

  241,648 

Financial investments

  458,414 

  446,274 

Other assets

  282,872 

  242,521 

Total assets

  3,021,512 

  2,957,939 

Liabilities and equity

 

 

Liabilities

 

 

Deposits by banks

  101,786 

  101,152 

Customer accounts

  1,709,685 

  1,710,574 

Repurchase agreements - non-trading

  138,034 

  126,670 

Trading liabilities

  81,184 

  84,904 

Financial liabilities designated at fair value

  135,624 

  145,502 

Derivatives

  216,353 

  191,064 

Debt securities in issue

  85,330 

  78,557 

Liabilities under insurance contracts

  115,317 

  112,745 

Other liabilities

  233,541 

  199,994 

Total liabilities

  2,816,854 

  2,751,162 

Equity

 

 

Total shareholders' equity

  196,293 

  198,250 

Non-controlling interests

  8,365 

  8,527 

Total equity

  204,658 

  206,777 

Total liabilities and equity

  3,021,512 

  2,957,939 

1  Net of impairment allowances.

Balance sheet commentary

Balance sheet - 31 March 2022 compared with 31 December 2021

At 31 March 2022, our total assets of $3.0tn were $64bn higher on a reported basis and included adverse effects of foreign currency translation differences of $38bn. On a constant currency basis, total assets were $102bn higher. The commentary below is on a constant currency basis.

The increase in total assets reflected a seasonal increase in settlement accounts, as customers aim to settle their trades at 31 December, as well as higher derivative assets, driven by mark-to-market movements on interest rate swaps, mainly in the UK, France and Hong Kong. Loans and advances to customers increased across all global business. These increases were partly offset by a reduction in trading assets, as equity balances fell, mainly in the UK and Hong Kong, due to a weakening of global equity prices and reduced positions during the quarter.

Reported loans and advances to customers as a percentage of customer accounts was 61.7%, which was higher compared with 61.1% at 31 December 2021.

Loans and advances to customers

Reported loans and advances to customers of $1.1tn were $9bn higher, which included adverse effects of foreign currency translation differences of $12bn. On a constant currency basis, customer lending balances were $21bn higher. The commentary that follows is on a constant currency basis.

Customer lending increased in WPB by $5bn to $488bn, mainly from higher mortgage balances, notably in the UK (up $3bn), Australia (up $1bn) and Hong Kong (up $1bn), as well as higher term lending, partly offset by lower credit card balances.

In CMB, customer lending of $355bn was $9bn higher, rising above pre-pandemic levels, with growth across all regions. Credit and lending grew $6bn, reflecting an increase in customers' funding requirements, notably in Asia and Canada, and trade lending increased by $3bn due to continued growth in global trade volumes.

In GBM, lending of $213bn increased by $7bn, largely driven by the reversal of a seasonal reduction whereby customers typically settle their asset and liability balances with us at the end of the year.

Customer accounts

Customer accounts of $1.7tn decreased by $1bn on a reported basis, which included adverse effects of foreign currency translation differences of $22bn. On a constant currency basis, customer accounts were $21bn higher, from the build-up of cash by personal customers and from the reversal of a seasonal reduction whereby customers typically settle their asset and liability balances with us at the end of the year in GBM.

Financial investments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income

As part of our interest rate hedging strategy, we hold a portfolio of financial investments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income ('FVOCI'), which are classified as hold-to-collect-and-sell. As a result, the change in value of these instruments is recognised through 'debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income' in equity. At 31 December 2021, we held $349bn of these instruments.

The increase in term market yield curves in 1Q22 drove a pre-tax FVOCI loss of $3.9bn on hold-to-collect-and-sell positions, with a post-tax FVOCI loss of $3.1bn. Overall the Group is positively exposed to rising interest rates through net interest income, although there is an impact on our capital base due to the fair value of hold-to-collect-and-sell instruments. There is an initial negative effect materialising through reserves, after which the net interest income of the Group is expected to result in a net benefit over time, provided policy rates follow market implied rates.

Over time, these adverse movements will unwind as the instruments reach maturity, although not all will necessarily be held to maturity. The debt securities in this portfolio have an average tenor of approximately four years.

It is currently estimated that it will take between four and six quarters for the benefit to Group net interest income to offset the adverse impact of these revaluations, provided the composition of the portfolio were to remain static.

Between 31 March 2022 and 19 April 2022, there has been an additional pre-tax loss of approximately $1bn due to the continued steepening of yield curves.

Risk-weighted assets - 31 March 2022 compared with 31 December 2021

Risk-weighted assets ('RWAs') increased by $24.0bn during the quarter. Excluding foreign currency translation differences, RWAs increased by $32.5bn, reflecting the following movements:

a $12.8bn increase in RWAs due to asset size movements, mostly due to lending growth in CMB, GBM and WPB, mainly in Asia, the UK and Canada;

a $0.6bn fall in RWAs due to changes in asset quality, mostly due to improved ratings and a favourable portfolio mix in CMB in the UK and North America, only partly offset by an increase related to exposures in Russia;

a $23.4bn increase in RWAs due to changes to methodology and policy, primarily regulatory changes including revised modelling requirements and the UK's implementation of the revised Capital Requirements Regulation and Directive ('CRR II'), as implemented; and

a $3.1bn reduction in RWAs due to model updates and our exit from mass market retail banking in the US through the sale of retail branches.

Global businesses

 

Wealth and Personal Banking - adjusted results

Management view of adjusted revenue

 

Quarter ended

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

31 Mar

Variance

 

2022

2021

2021

1Q22 vs. 1Q21

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

%

Wealth

  1,927 

  2,019 

  2,370 

  (443)

(19)

-  investment distribution

  816 

  713

  1,034 

  (218)

(21)

-  Global Private Banking

  464 

  422

  480

  (16)

(3)

  net interest income

  171 

  165

  154

  17 

11

  non-interest income

  293 

  257

  326

  (33)

(10)

-  life insurance manufacturing

  371 

  576

  562

  (191)

(34)

-  asset management

  276 

  308

  294

  (18)

(6)

Personal Banking

  3,180 

  3,084 

  2,964 

  216 

7

-  net interest income

  2,857 

  2,733 

  2,628 

  229 

9

-  non-interest income

  323 

  351

  336

  (13)

(4)

Other1

  124 

  164

  232

  (108)

(47)

Net operating income2

  5,231 

  5,267 

  5,566 

  (335)

(6)

RoTE excluding significant items (annualised) (%)

  6.9 

15.2

  18.8 

 

 

1  'Other' includes the distribution and manufacturing (where applicable) of retail and credit protection insurance, disposal gains and other
non-product-specific income. It also includes Markets Treasury, HSBC Holdings interest expense and Argentina hyperinflation.

2  'Net operating income' means net operating income before change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges (also referred to as 'revenue').

1Q22 compared with 1Q21

Adjusted profit before tax of $1.1bn was $0.8bn or 40% lower than in 1Q21. This reflected lower revenue in Wealth, primarily due to an adverse movement of $0.3bn in market impacts in life insurance manufacturing, while sales of insurance products were strong. This was partly offset by higher revenue within Personal Banking from rising interest rates and strong balance sheet growth. There was also a net ECL charge in 1Q22 of $0.3bn, compared with minimal releases in 1Q21, while operating expenses were $0.1bn higher.

Adjusted revenue of $5.2bn was $0.3bn or 6% lower.

In Wealth, revenue of $1.9bn was down $0.4bn or 19%, notably from an adverse movement of $0.3bn in market impacts.

Investment distribution revenue was $0.2bn or 21% lower, as muted customer sentiment led to lower activity in equity markets, which compared with a strong 1Q21, and as Covid-19-related restrictions in Hong Kong resulted in the temporary closure of parts of our branch network.

Life insurance manufacturing revenue was $0.2bn lower, primarily due to an adverse movement in market impacts of $342m. An adverse movement of $275m compared with a favourable movement of $67m in 1Q21, mainly from an adverse performance in equity markets in the quarter. The value of new business written was strong, increasing by 25%, as we broadened how we engage with customers, including through video-enabled meetings, and from the launch of new products aimed at high net worth individuals. In addition, there was a $0.1bn gain on the completion of our acquisition of AXA Singapore during the quarter.

Global Private Banking revenue was 3% lower from a decline in brokerage and trading revenue, reflecting reduced client activity compared with a strong 1Q21. This reduction was partly offset by higher net interest income due to the impact of rising interest rates and from higher annuity fee income.

Asset Management revenue was 6% lower, mostly reflecting adverse market conditions. This was partly offset by growth in management fees from net new invested assets of $3bn in 1Q22.

In Personal Banking, revenue of $3.2bn was up $0.2bn or 7%.

Net interest income was $0.2bn higher due to the benefit of interest rate rises and strong balance sheet growth. Compared with 1Q21, deposit balances increased by $30bn or 4% and mortgage lending rose by $24bn or 7%, with growth across all regions, notably in the UK and Asia. Unsecured lending increased by $1bn or 3%, primarily in the UK and Mexico.

Non-interest income of $0.3bn was 4% lower, primarily driven by lower investment revaluation gains.

Adjusted ECL were a net charge of $0.3bn, compared with a small net release in 1Q21. The net charge in 1Q22 reflected a deterioration in the forward economic outlook due to the impact of the Russia-Ukraine war and higher inflation. This compared with a small net release in 1Q21 of Covid-19-related allowances previously built up in 2020.

Adjusted operating expenses of $3.8bn were $0.1bn or 2% higher, mainly due to continued investment in our strategic programmes, including wealth in Asia, which was partly offset by the benefits of our cost-saving initiatives and a lower performance-related pay accrual, which reflected the expected phasing of our profits for the year.

Commercial Banking - adjusted results

Management view of adjusted revenue

 

Quarter ended

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

31 Mar

Variance

 

2022

2021

2021

1Q22 vs. 1Q21

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

%

Global Trade and Receivables Finance

  542 

  509

  445

  97 

22

Credit and Lending

  1,493 

  1,556 

  1,432 

  61 

4

Global Liquidity and Cash Management

  1,020 

  931

  843

  177 

21

GBM products, Insurance and Investments, and Other1

  478 

  369

  529

  (51) 

(10)

-  of which: share of revenue from Markets and Securities Services and Banking products

  316 

  273

  254

  62 

24

Net operating income2

  3,533 

  3,365 

  3,249 

  284 

9

RoTE excluding significant items (annualised) (%)

  12.1 

  10.8 

  11.5 

 

 

1  Includes CMB's share of revenue from the sale of Markets and Securities Services and Banking products to CMB customers. GBM's share of revenue from the sale of these products to CMB customers is included within the corresponding lines of the GBM management view of adjusted revenue. Also includes allocated revenue from Markets Treasury, HSBC Holdings interest expense and Argentina hyperinflation.

2  'Net operating income' means net operating income before change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges (also referred to as 'revenue').

1Q22 compared with 1Q21

Adjusted profit before tax of $1.8bn was $0.1bn or 3% higher than in 1Q21. This was driven by an increase in adjusted revenue across all CMB products and in all regions, and notably included a 13% increase in fee income. This was partly offset by a smaller net release of ECL. Adjusted operating expenses remained stable, as investment spend was mitigated by continued cost discipline.

Adjusted revenue of $3.5bn was $0.3bn or 9% higher:

In GLCM, revenue increased by $0.2bn or 21%, with growth across all regions, particularly in Europe, Asia and Latin America, driven by a 10% increase in average deposit balances at improved margins, in part reflecting higher interest rates. There was also a 22% increase in fee income, with growth across all regions.

In GTRF, revenue increased by $0.1bn or 22%, with growth across all regions, notably in Asia and the UK, driven by a continued increase in average trade balances, which rose by 26% compared with 1Q21. Period end trade balances increased by 4% since 31 December 2021. In addition, margins improved and we grew fee income by 11%, compared with 1Q21.

In Credit and Lending, revenue increased by $0.1bn or 4%, with growth across all regions, driven by wider margins. Average balances fell, although period end balances were higher, with growth in Asia and Canada. In addition, fee income grew by 2%.

In GBM products, Insurance and Investments, and Other, revenue decreased by $0.1bn or 10% reflecting lower Markets Treasury revenue, partly offset by a 24% increase in collaboration revenue from GBM products, notably Foreign Exchange.

Adjusted ECL were a net release of $12m, compared with a net release of $221m in 1Q21. ECL in 1Q22 reflected releases of Covid-19-related allowances, notably on our exposures to hotels in the UK, partly offset by a deterioration in the forward economic outlook due to the impact of the Russia-Ukraine war and higher inflation. It also included specific charges relating to the commercial real estate sector in mainland China. This compared with a larger net release in 1Q21 of Covid-19-related allowances previously built up in 2020.

Adjusted operating expenses of $1.7bn were stable, as continued investment in technology was largely offset by continued cost discipline on discretionary spend and through hiring efficiencies, as well as from the impact of our cost-saving initiatives and a lower performance-related pay accrual, which reflected the expected phasing of our profits for the year.

At 31 March 2022, we had delivered $28bn of cumulative gross RWA reductions as part of our transformation programme.

 

Global Banking and Markets - adjusted results

Management view of adjusted revenue

 

Quarter ended

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

31 Mar

Variance

 

2022

2021

2021

1Q22 vs. 1Q21

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

%

Markets and Securities Services

  2,371 

  1,857 

  2,430 

  (59)

(2)

-  Securities Services

  489 

  468

  441

  48 

11

-  Global Debt Markets

  208 

  1

  387

  (179)

(46)

-  Global Foreign Exchange

  1,070 

  895

  928

  142 

15

-  Equities

  417 

  232

  408

    9 

2

-  Securities Financing

  219 

  218

  234

  (15)

(6)

-  Credit and funding valuation adjustments

  (32)

  43

  32

  (64)

>(100)

Banking

  1,651 

  1,648 

  1,589 

  62 

4

-  Global Trade and Receivables Finance

  185 

  175

  174

  11 

6

-  Global Liquidity and Cash Management

  521 

  477

  432

  89 

21

-  Credit and Lending

  607 

  653

  637

  (30)

(5)

-  Capital Markets and Advisory

  290 

  308

  284

  6 

2

-  Other1

  48 

  35

  62

  (14)

(23)

GBM Other

  (10)

  (13)

  157

  (167)

>(100)

-  Principal Investments

  60 

  52

  172

  (112)

(65)

-  Other2

  (70)

  (65)

  (15)

  (55)

>(100)

Net operating income3

  4,012 

  3,492 

  4,176 

  (164)

(4)

RoTE excluding significant items (annualised) (%)

  8.2 

  8.6 

  12.1 

 

 

1  Includes portfolio management, earnings on capital and other capital allocations on all Banking products.

2  Includes notional tax credits and Markets Treasury, HSBC Holdings interest expense and Argentina hyperinflation.

3  'Net operating income' means net operating income before change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges (also referred to as 'revenue').

1Q22 compared with 1Q21

Adjusted profit before tax of $1.2bn was $0.7bn or 35% lower than in 1Q21. This was driven by a net ECL charge in 1Q22, compared with a net release in 1Q21, and lower adjusted revenue. Adjusted operating expenses were stable compared with 1Q21.

Adjusted revenue of $4.0bn was $0.2bn or 4% lower than in 1Q21. In Principal Investments, revenue fell by $0.1bn, as 1Q22 included lower revaluation gains compared with 1Q21.

In MSS, revenue fell by $0.1bn or 2%, and included adverse movements in credit and funding valuation adjustments of $0.1bn.

In Global Foreign Exchange, revenue growth of $0.1bn or 15% was due to a strong trading performance driven by market-wide volatility and strong client activity.

In Equities, higher volatility resulted in higher revenue in the context of a strong 1Q21.

In Securities Services, revenue grew by $48m or 11% from higher net interest income, as global interest rates rose. Fee income fell due to lower transaction volumes, although this was in part mitigated by higher fees linked to assets under custody, which grew on an average basis by 7%.

In Global Debt Markets, revenue fell by $0.2bn or 46%, reflecting muted primary activity and lower client activity due to uncertainty caused by the Russia-Ukraine war and the commercial real estate sector in mainland China.

In Banking, revenue increased by $62m or 4%.

In GLCM, revenue increased by $0.1bn or 21%, reflecting a 19% increase in fee income, with growth across all regions and particularly in Europe, as we delivered on our strategic fee initiatives. Net interest income increased by 21% due to an 8% growth in average balances and higher global interest rates, notably in Europe.

In Credit and Lending, revenue decreased by $30m or 5% as we executed our strategic plan to reduce RWAs.

Capital Markets and Advisory revenue was broadly unchanged, as the slowdown in equity and debt capital markets activity was offset by continued growth in leveraged finance in the US.

Adjusted ECL were a net charge of $0.3bn, compared with a release of $0.2bn in 1Q21. The net charge in 1Q22 reflected a deterioration in forward economic guidance due to the impact of the Russia-Ukraine war and inflationary pressures. This compared with the net release in 1Q21 of Covid-19-related allowances previously built up in 2020.

Adjusted operating expenses of $2.5bn were broadly in line with 1Q21 as the impact of our cost-saving initiatives and a lower performance-related pay accrual, which reflected the expected phasing of our profits for the year, mitigated higher technology investment.

At 31 March 2022, we had delivered $83bn of cumulative gross RWA reductions as part of our transformation programme.

 

Corporate Centre - adjusted results

Management view of adjusted revenue

 

Quarter ended

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

31 Mar

Variance

 

2022

2021

2021

1Q22 vs. 1Q21

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

%

Central Treasury1

  5 

  (10)

  (28)

  33 

>100

Legacy portfolios

  (21)

  (14)

  9

  (30)

>(100)

Other2

  (211)

  (80)

  (10)

  (201)

>(200)

Net operating income3

  (227)

  (104)

  (29)

  (198)

>(100)

RoTE excluding significant items (annualised) (%)

  6.2 

  5.6 

  7.4 

 

 

1  Central Treasury includes favourable valuation differences on issued long-term debt and associated swaps of $5m (4Q21: losses of $10m;
1Q21: losses of $28m).

2  Revenue from Markets Treasury, HSBC Holdings net interest expense and Argentina hyperinflation are allocated out to the global businesses, to align them better with their revenue and expense. The total Markets Treasury revenue component of this allocation for 1Q22 was $503m
(4Q21: $490m; 1Q21: $783m).

3  'Net operating income' means net operating income before change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges (also referred to as 'revenue').

1Q22 compared with 1Q21

Adjusted profit before tax of $0.5bn was $0.2bn or 29% lower than in 1Q21 due to a reduction in adjusted share of profit from associates and joint ventures, as well as adverse movements in adjusted revenue, partly offset by lower adjusted operating expenses.

Adjusted revenue decreased by $0.2bn, mainly due to intersegment eliminations with GBM. The reduction also included foreign currency-related valuation losses on hedges.

Adjusted operating expenses decreased by $0.2bn due to an increase in costs allocated to our global businesses.

Adjusted share of profit from associates and joint ventures of $0.6bn decreased by $0.2bn, primarily as 1Q21 included a higher share of profit from BGF due to the recovery in asset valuations.

Notes

• Income statement comparisons, unless stated otherwise, are between the quarter ended 31 March 2022 and the quarter ended 31 March 2021. Balance sheet comparisons, unless otherwise stated, are between balances at 31 March 2022 and the corresponding balances at 31 December 2021.

• The financial information on which this Earnings Release is based, and the data set out in the appendix to this statement, are unaudited and have been prepared in accordance with our significant accounting policies as described on pages 318 to 328 of our Annual Report and Accounts2021.

Dividends

On 22 February 2022, the Directors approved a second interim dividend for 2021 of $0.18 per ordinary share to be paid on 28 April 2022 in cash. The sterling and Hong Kong dollar amounts of approximately £0.138188 and HK$1.411736 were calculated using the forward exchange rates quoted by HSBC Bank plc in London at or about 11.00am on 19 April 2022. The Group has reviewed whether it will revert to paying quarterly dividends and is currently not intending to pay quarterly dividends during 2022. The Group will continue to review whether to revert to paying quarterly dividends in future years, and a further update will be given at or ahead of the 2022 annual results announcement in February 2023.

Risk

 

Approach to risk management

We aim to use a comprehensive risk management approach across the organisation and across all risk types, underpinned by our culture and values. This is outlined in our risk management framework, including the key principles and practices that we employ in managing material risks, both financial and non-financial. The framework fosters continual monitoring, promotes risk awareness and encourages sound operational and strategic decision making. It also supports a consistent approach to identifying, assessing, managing and reporting the risks we accept and incur in our activities. We continue to actively review and develop our risk management framework and enhance our approach to managing risk with clear accountabilities.

We operate a wide-ranging stress testing programme, which is a key part of our risk management and capital and liquidity planning. Stress testing provides management with key insights into the impacts of severely adverse events on the Group, and provides confidence to regulators on the Group's financial stability.

In response to the risks posed by climate change, we continue to develop our capabilities to execute climate stress testing and scenario analysis, which are being used to further enhance our understanding of our risk exposures for use in risk management and business decision making. We have also delivered regulatory stress testing exercises to a number of regulators including the Bank of England's climate biennial exploratory scenario.

At 31 March 2022, our CET1 ratio decreased to 14.1%, from 15.8% at 31 December 2021, and our liquidity coverage ratio ('LCR') was 134%. Our capital, funding and liquidity positions continue to help enable us to support our customers throughout the ongoing geopolitical and macroeconomic uncertainty.

Geopolitical and macroeconomic risks

Heightened geopolitical tensions, alongside other factors, have disrupted supply chains globally and created potential ramifications for the Group. The Russian invasion of Ukraine has led to elevated geopolitical instability and resulted in the US, UK and EU, as well as other countries, imposing significant sanctions and other trade restrictions against Russia, numerous government officials and individuals, and Russian companies and financial institutions, some of which are unprecedented in their nature. Russia has implemented certain countermeasures in response. HSBC is monitoring the direct and indirect impacts of the situation on the Group, and using its sanctions compliance capabilities to respond to the new sanctions regulations, noting the challenges that arise in implementing the complex, novel and ambiguous aspects of certain of these sanctions. Our business in Russia principally serves multinational corporate clients headquartered in other countries and is not accepting new business or customers, and is consequently on a declining trend. However, it may become subject to further restrictions, or other developments, which may make our continued operations in Russia untenable. This could generate additional losses which are not currently provided for in the balance sheet. Global commodity markets have been significantly impacted, leading to supply chain disruptions and increased prices for both energy and non-energy products, which in turn have had global inflationary impacts. There has also been increased financial market volatility. The continuation or any escalation in the Russia-Ukraine war could have further economic, social and political repercussions and is likely to result in further sanctions and trade restrictions, all of which could impact HSBC and its customers.

The repercussions from the Russia-Ukraine war, alongside the economic impacts that continue to result from Covid-19, have pushed up the prices of a broad range of commodities, with the resulting increase in inflation creating further challenges for monetary authorities and our customers. Having pre-announced the end of the prolonged period of extraordinary monetary accommodation in the latter part of 2021, central banks in developed markets are now expected to step up the pace of policy tightening in 2022 to help ease inflationary pressures. Central banks may need to calibrate this pace depending on the evolution of the economic growth outlook. There is a risk that the combination of excessive tightening and worse-than-anticipated economic effects from the Russia-Ukraine war, including as a result of the extensive sanctions, trade restrictions and countermeasures that have been and may in the future be implemented, precipitates a recession in parts of the global economy.

Higher inflationary concerns around the world are having an impact on ECL. We continued to carry out enhanced monitoring of model outputs and use of model overlays, including management judgemental adjustments based on the expert judgement of senior credit risk managers. Inflation has been considered both directly in certain models, and assessed via adjustments where not directly considered. Continuing economic uncertainty resulting from heightened inflation could cause ECL model inputs to produce modelled loss results that are not reliable.

Diplomatic tensions between China and the US, extending to the UK, the EU, India and other countries, and political developments in Hong Kong and Taiwan, may affect the Group by creating regulatory, reputational and market risks. The US, the UK, the EU, Canada and other countries have imposed various sanctions and trade restrictions on Chinese persons and companies. In response to foreign sanctions and trade restrictions, China has also announced sanctions, trade restrictions and laws that could impact the Group and its customers.

Market participants remain concerned about the repercussions for the Chinese domestic economy from recent instability in its commercial real estate sector, including deteriorating operating performance and challenging liquidity conditions. Such repercussions may occur directly through financial exposures to the Chinese commercial real estate sector, or indirectly through the effect of a slowdown in economic activity in China and in the supply chain to the real estate sector. We continue to monitor the situation closely, including potential indirect impacts, and seek to take mitigating actions as required.

Strains in the relationship between the UK and the EU, which to a certain extent have had less of a focus in light of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, may come back to the fore through a number of potential areas of tension, notably the Northern Ireland Protocol, with possible impacts for the operation of the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement.

In December 2021, the OECD published model rules that provided a template for countries to implement a new global minimum tax rate of 15% from 2023. In January 2022, the UK government opened a consultation on how the UK plans to implement the rules. Guidance to accompany these model rules was published in March 2022. The impact on HSBC will depend on how the UK implements the model rules, as well as the profitability and local tax liabilities of HSBC's operations in each tax jurisdiction from 2023. Separately, potential changes to tax legislation and tax rates in the countries in which we operate could increase our effective tax rate in future as governments seek revenue to pay for Covid-19 support packages.

We continue to monitor and to seek to manage the potential implications of all the above developments on our customers and business.

Risks related to Covid-19

While the global vaccination roll-out has helped reduce the social and economic impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, the emergence of Omicron-related variants highlight the continuing risk posed by the pandemic. Countries continue to differ in their approach to restrictions on activity and travel, and if these differences persist in future pandemic waves, this could prolong or worsen supply chain and international travel disruptions. Most notably, China's government-imposed lockdown restrictions in major Chinese cities have impacted China's economy, Asia tourism and global supply chains adversely. Business sentiment in some sectors in Hong Kong remains subdued, in part owing to the impacts of new waves of Covid-19 infections and the continued restrictions, although the financial services sector has remained strong and has benefited from stable liquidity conditions. A full return to pre-pandemic levels of social interaction across all our key markets remains unlikely in the short to medium term.

While our operations have been resilient throughout the pandemic, the operational support functions on which the Group relies are based in countries around the world, some of which have been particularly affected by Covid-19. As a result, business continuity responses have been implemented and most service level agreements have been maintained in places where the Group operates. We continue to monitor the situation closely, in particular in those countries and regions where Covid-19 infections are most prevalent and/or where travel restrictions are in place.

Climate risk

The pace and volume of policy and regulatory developments focusing on climate risk management, stress testing and scenario analysis, and disclosures have continued to increase into 2022. The Russian invasion of Ukraine has significantly impacted the global commodity markets, necessitating actions in the short term around energy security. While these actions may impact the near-term transition path for HSBC and our customers, we remain committed to our climate strategy to align our own operations and supply chain to net zero by 2030, and the financed emissions from our portfolio of customers to net zero by 2050.

Our most material risks in terms of managing climate risk relate to corporate and retail client financing within our banking portfolio, but there are also significant responsibilities in relation to asset ownership by our insurance business and employee pension plans, as well as from the activities of our asset management business.

We continue to monitor the impacts of climate risk and further embed our approach across our key risk areas, priority regions and business lines. We have refreshed our credit risk policy to further embed climate risk considerations into our corporate credit decisions for new money requests. While financed emissions and other climate risk reporting has improved over time, data quality and consistency continues to be a key dependency as we develop our risk appetite and metrics. As announced in March 2022, we intend to publish a climate transition plan in 2023, and have committed to a science-aligned phase-down of fossil fuel finance, and a review of our wider financing and investment policies critical to achieving net zero by 2050.

Ibor transition

Following the cessation of publication of sterling, Swiss franc, euro and Japanese yen Libor interest rate benchmarks, as well as Euro Overnight Index Average ('Eonia') from the end of 2021, our interbank offered rate ('Ibor') transition programme - which is tasked with the development of new near risk-free rate ('RFR') products and the transition of legacy Ibor products - has continued to transition a limited number of remaining contracts in these benchmarks to RFRs, or alternative rates, and has begun preparation for the transition of US dollar Libor legacy contracts.

During 1Q22, we continued client engagement to help facilitate the transition of the remaining legacy wholesale lending contracts prior to their next subsequent relevant interest payment date, as well as a small number of derivative contracts referencing interest rate benchmarks that were demised from the end of 2021. This has reduced the overall residual population of such legacy contracts to less than 100. Where transition in advance of the next relevant interest payment date has not been possible, a small number of clients have utilised the sterling and Japanese yen benchmark settings that are currently being published using an amended methodology, commonly known as 'synthetic' Libor. We will continue to support our clients in the transition of contracts through 2022.

Furthermore, the Ibor programme has been actively engaged in planning for the transition of outstanding US dollar Libor legacy contracts through 2022 and into 2023. Following the requirement to cease entering into new contracts referencing US dollar Libor from 1 January 2022, the immediate focus is on our population of uncommitted lending facilities where we are actively engaging with our clients with a view to transition those facilities at the earliest possible opportunity. We also plan to engage with our clients from 2Q22 in relation to the population of committed lending facilities, bilateral derivatives and other relevant products, with a view to transition their legacy US dollar Libor contracts by no later than the end of June 2023.

We continue to develop and implement new RFR products throughout our Group, particularly in entities that have US dollar Libor contracts that require transition. We also continue to observe market developments for products relating to RFR and alternative rates, and to monitor the key risks associated with Ibor transition. These key risks remain unchanged and include regulatory compliance risk, resilience risk, financial reporting risk, legal risk and market risk.

Credit risk

 

Summary of credit risk

At 31 March 2022, gross loans and advances to customers and banks of $1,157bn increased by $16.4bn, compared with 31 December 2021. This included adverse foreign exchange movements of $13.0bn.

Excluding foreign exchange movements, growth was driven by a $16.5bn increase in wholesale loans and advances to customers, an $8.1bn increase in loans and advances to banks and a $4.8bn increase in personal loans and advances to customers.

The increase in wholesale loans and advances to customers was driven mainly in the UK (up $7.3bn), the US (up $2.0bn), Canada (up $1.8bn), India (up $1.6bn) and mainland China (up $1.5bn). The increase in personal loans and advances to customers was driven mainly by increases in the UK (up $3.0bn) and Australia (up $1.5bn).

During the first three months of 2022, the Group experienced a decrease in allowances for ECL mainly driven by foreign exchange movements.

Excluding foreign exchange movements, the allowance for ECL in relation to loans and advances to customers increased marginally from 31 December 2021. This was attributable to:

a $0.1bn decrease in wholesale loans and advances to customers, of which $0.3bn was driven by stages 1 and 2; and

a $0.1bn increase in personal loans and advances to customers, of which $0.2bn was driven by stages 1 and 2.

At 31 March 2022, the allowance for ECL of $12.0bn decreased by $0.1bn compared with 31 December 2021, including favourable foreign exchange movements of $0.2bn. The $12.0bn allowance comprised $11.5bn in respect of assets held at amortised cost, $0.4bn in respect of loan commitments and financial guarantees, and $0.1bn in respect of debt instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income ('FVOCI').

The ECL charge for the first three months of 2022 was $0.6bn, inclusive of recoveries. This was driven by a deterioration in the forward economic outlook as a result of the impact of Russia's invasion of Ukraine and higher inflation. It also included $0.2bn charges relating to the commercial real estate sector in mainland China, partly offset by a release in Covid-19-related allowances.

The ECL charge comprised $0.3bn in respect of wholesale lending, of which the stage 3 and purchased or originated credit impaired ('POCI') charge was $0.3bn; and $0.3bn in respect of personal lending, of which the stage 3 charge was $0.1bn.

The ECL charge in 1Q22 included an additional judgemental management adjustment of $250m in excess of the ECL generated by our economic scenarios to reflect heightened levels of uncertainty resulting from a combination of risks including: a period of low economic growth with high inflation and higher unemployment, second-order impacts of the Russia-Ukraine war, geopolitical risks, Covid-19 restrictions in Asia and potential sovereign downgrades.

Our exposures to Russia principally relate to wholesale loans and include $1.3bn booked in Russia (including $0.8bn to the Central Bank of the Russian Federation) and amounts booked outside Russia of $0.4bn. These exposures to Russia comprise loans and advances to banks and customers, bonds, other financial assets and off-balance sheet exposures.

Summary of financial instruments to which the impairment requirements in IFRS 9 are applied

 

At 31 Mar 2022

At 31 Dec 2021

 

Gross carrying/nominal amount

Allowance for ECL1

Gross carrying/nominal amount

Allowance for

ECL1

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

Loans and advances to customers at amortised cost

  1,066,604 

  (11,297)

  1,057,231 

  (11,417)

Loans and advances to banks at amortised cost

  90,214 

  (53)

  83,153 

  (17)

Other financial assets measured at amortised cost

  906,870 

  (162)

  880,351 

  (193)

-  cash and balances at central banks

  389,274 

  (17)

  403,022 

  (4)

-  items in the course of collection from other banks

  4,898 

  - 

  4,136 

  - 

-  Hong Kong Government certificates of indebtedness

  43,438 

  - 

  42,578 

  - 

-  reverse repurchase agreements - non-trading

  245,575 

  - 

  241,648 

  - 

-  financial investments

  98,361 

  (64)

  97,364 

  (62)

-  prepayments, accrued income and other assets2

  125,324 

  (81)

  91,603 

  (127)

Total gross carrying amount on-balance sheet

  2,063,688 

  (11,512)

  2,020,735 

  (11,627)

Loans and other credit-related commitments

  641,885 

  (323)

  627,637 

  (379)

Financial guarantees

  18,176 

  (113)

  27,795 

  (62)

Total nominal amount off-balance sheet3

  660,061 

  (436)

  655,432 

  (441)

 

  2,723,749 

  (11,948)

  2,676,167 

  (12,068)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fair value

Memorandum allowance for ECL4

Fair value

Memorandum

allowance for

ECL4

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

Debt instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income ('FVOCI')

  358,377 

  (95)

  347,203 

  (96)

1  The total ECL is recognised in the loss allowance for the financial asset unless the total ECL exceeds the gross carrying amount of the financial asset, in which case the ECL is recognised as a provision.

2  Includes only those financial instruments that are subject to the impairment requirements of IFRS 9. 'Prepayments, accrued income and other assets' as presented within the summary consolidated balance sheet on page 10 includes both financial and non-financial assets.

3  Represents the maximum amount at risk should the contracts be fully drawn upon and clients default.

4  Debt instruments measured at FVOCI continue to be measured at fair value with the allowance for ECL as a memorandum item. Change in ECL is recognised in 'Change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges' in the income statement.

 

Summary of credit risk (excluding debt instruments measured at FVOCI) by stage distribution and ECL coverage at 31 March 2022

 

Gross carrying/nominal amount1

Allowance for ECL

ECL coverage %

 

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

POCI2

Total

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

POCI2

Total

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

POCI2

Total

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

%

%

%

%

%

Loans and advances to customers at amortised cost

  930,832 

115,922

  19,690 

  160 

  1,066,604 

  (1,277)

  (3,069)

  (6,902)

  (49)

  (11,297)

  0.1 

  2.6 

  35.1 

  30.6 

  1.1 

Loans and advances to banks at amortised cost

  88,773 

  1,421 

  20 

  - 

  90,214 

  (7)

  (36)

  (10)

  -

  (53)

  - 

  2.5 

  50.0 

  - 

  0.1 

Other financial assets measured at amortised cost

  902,850 

  3,824 

  153 

  43 

  906,870 

  (92)

  (39)

  (25)

  (6)

  (162)

  - 

  1.0 

  16.3 

  14.0 

  - 

Loan and other credit-related commitments

  614,903 

  25,827 

  1,155 

  - 

  641,885 

  (142)

  (129)

  (52)

  -

  (323)

  - 

  0.5 

  4.5 

  - 

  0.1 

Financial guarantees

  15,569 

  2,379 

  228 

  - 

  18,176 

  (7)

  (82)

  (24)

  -

  (113)

  - 

  3.4 

  10.5 

  - 

  0.6 

At 31 Mar 2022

2,552,927

149,373

  21,246 

  203 

  2,723,749 

  (1,525)

  (3,355)

  (7,013)

  (55)

  (11,948)

  0.1 

  2.2 

  33.0 

  27.1 

  0.4 

1  Represents the maximum amount at risk should the contracts be fully drawn upon and clients default.

2  Purchased or originated credit-impaired ('POCI').

Summary of credit risk (excluding debt instruments measured at FVOCI) by stage distribution and ECL coverage at 31 December 2021

 

Gross carrying/nominal amount1

Allowance for ECL

ECL coverage %

 

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

POCI2

Total

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

POCI2

Total

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

POCI2

Total

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

%

%

%

%

%

Loans and advances to customers at amortised cost

  918,936 

119,224

  18,797 

  274 

  1,057,231 

  (1,367)

  (3,119)

  (6,867)

  (64)

  (11,417)

  0.1 

  2.6 

  36.5 

  23.4 

  1.1 

Loans and advances to banks at amortised cost

  81,636 

  1,517 

  - 

  - 

  83,153 

  (14)

  (3)

  - 

  - 

  (17)

  - 

  0.2 

  - 

  - 

  - 

Other financial assets measured at amortised cost

  875,016 

  4,988 

  304 

  43 

  880,351 

  (91)

  (54)

  (42)

  (6)

  (193)

  - 

  1.1 

  13.8 

  14.0 

  - 

Loan and other credit-related commitments

  594,473 

  32,389 

  775 

  - 

  627,637 

  (165)

  (174)

  (40)

  - 

  (379)

  - 

  0.5 

  5.2 

  - 

  0.1 

Financial guarantees

  24,932 

  2,638 

  225 

  - 

  27,795 

  (11)

  (30)

  (21)

  - 

  (62)

  - 

  1.1 

  9.3 

  - 

  0.2 

At 31 Dec 2021

  2,494,993 

160,756

  20,101 

  317 

  2,676,167 

  (1,648)

  (3,380)

  (6,970)

  (70)

  (12,068)

  0.1 

  2.1 

  34.7 

  22.1 

  0.5 

1  Represents the maximum amount at risk should the contracts be fully drawn upon and clients default.

2  Purchased or originated credit-impaired ('POCI').

Measurement uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of ECL estimates

At 1Q22, ECL impairment allowances reflected a higher level of measurement uncertainty as economic recovery remained volatile, with greater weighting given to downside economic forecasts than 4Q21. This reflected increased risks including the Russia-Ukraine war and broader macroeconomic and geopolitical uncertainties, resulting in the adoption of an additional scenario for 1Q22. Covid-19-related management judgemental adjustments continued to reduce overall, noting that risks to global economic growth remain, particularly in Asia.

The recognition and measurement of ECL involves the use of significant judgement and estimation. We form multiple economic scenarios based on economic forecasts, apply these assumptions to credit risk models to estimate future credit losses, and probability-weight the results to determine an unbiased ECL estimate.

Methodology

Due to the outbreak of the Russia-Ukraine war, five economic scenarios have been used to capture the current economic environment and to articulate management's view of the range of potential outcomes.

Of the four standard scenarios, three are drawn from consensus forecasts and distributional estimates. The fourth scenario, Downside 2, represents management's view of severe downside risks. The additional fifth scenario was developed to ensure that the rapid changes to the economic risk distribution, caused by the outbreak of war, are sufficiently reflected in forward economic guidance. The scenario is designed to capture the implications of a lengthy Russia-Ukraine war, including the significant increase in the risk of inflation and lower GDP growth.

Scenarios produced to calculate ECL are aligned to HSBC's top and emerging risks.

Description of economic scenarios

The economic assumptions presented in this section have been formed by HSBC, with reference to external forecasts specifically for the purpose of calculating ECL.

Economic forecasts are subject to a particularly high degree of uncertainty in the current environment. Risks to the outlook are dominated by uncertainty around the implications and duration of the Russia-Ukraine war, the progression and management of the pandemic, particularly in Asia, and the response of monetary authorities to higher inflation.

Russia's invasion of Ukraine and the wide-ranging financial and economic sanctions implemented on the Russian economy have elevated risks and uncertainty around global supply chains, commodity prices and inflation. In Asia, the spread of the Omicron variant has caused renewed disruptions to activity, especially in Hong Kong and mainland China where the public health response has been particularly stringent. In turn, this has further aggravated global supply chain disruptions. The emergence of new vaccine-resistant variants remains a risk globally. Price inflation, driven in part by supply chain constraints caused by the pandemic, risks being made worse by higher commodity prices as a result of the war in Ukraine. Higher inflation presents risks to growth as real incomes are squeezed by rising costs. This will present an additional risk as central banks tighten policy to bring inflation back towards target.

Other geopolitical risks present downside threats. These risks include continued differences between the US and China over a range of strategic issues and the evolution of the UK's relationship with the EU.

The five global scenarios used for the purpose of calculating ECL at 31 March 2022 are the consensus Central scenario, the consensus Upside scenario, the consensus Downside scenario, the Downside 1 scenario and the Downside 2 scenario.

The consensus Central scenario: This scenario features above trend GDP growth in most markets during 2022. It assumes limited negative economic impacts for major economies from the Russia-Ukraine war. Consumer spending and business investment, supported by elevated levels of private sector savings, are expected to support the economy as fiscal and monetary policy support recedes. In this scenario, Covid-19-related restrictions continue to ease in Europe and North America, where governments are willing to accept a certain level of infections in the community while hospitalisation levels remain manageable. Inflation is expected to gradually revert towards central bank targets by the end of 2023.

The consensus Upside scenario: This scenario features a faster recovery in economic activity in the near term, compared with the consensus Central scenario. In this scenario, growth accelerates, unemployment falls further and equity markets and house prices see further gains.

The consensus Downside scenario: This scenario features weaker economic activity compared with the Central scenario. In this scenario, growth weakens, unemployment rises and equity markets and house prices contract.

The Downside 1 scenario: This scenario explores risks around a protracted war in Ukraine and wide-ranging sanctions imposed on Russia, with retaliatory export controls. The scenario is constructed differently to the standard scenarios. Whereas those scenarios are constructed around demand shocks, the Downside 1 explores a different set of risks and emphasises the effects of a supply side shock. This causes inflation to rise higher than in the Central scenario and in key markets, interest rates are expected to rise. While the impact on global GDP growth is no more severe than the consensus Downside scenario, the scenario's implications for GDP growth on particular markets are more varied. Those markets most affected by trade and financial sanctions in Europe are expected to experience larger initial impacts on growth, followed by recoveries that are stronger than in our consensus scenarios. By contrast, the scenario features limited effects in Asian markets and some commodity exporters see modest improvement compared with the Central scenario.

The Downside 2 scenario: This scenario reflects management's view of tail risks. It incorporates the crystallisation of a number of risks simultaneously, including the emergence of a vaccine-resistant Covid-19 strain that necessitates a stringent public health policy response. It features a large demand shock, which causes price inflation to slow sharply amid a severe and prolonged recession.

Both the consensus Downside and the additional Downside scenarios are global in nature, and while they differ in severity, they assume that the key risks to HSBC, listed above, crystallise simultaneously.

The range of macroeconomic projections across the various scenarios is shown in the table below:

Macroeconomic projections in key markets

 

Central scenario

Consensus Upside scenario

Consensus Downside scenario

Downside 1 scenario

Downside 2 scenario

 

Five-year
average

2022

2023

2024

Five-year
average

Best outcome

Five-year
average

Worst outcome

Five-year
average

Worst outcome

Five-year
average

Worst outcome

Hong Kong

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GDP growth rate (%)

  2.6 

2.5

3.1

2.5

  4.2 

  9.3 

(1Q23)

  1.1 

  (0.6)

(1Q23)

  2.4 

  (0.3)

(2Q22)

  0.9 

  (8.8)

(1Q23)

Unemployment rate (%)

  3.6 

4.1

3.6

3.6

  3.3 

  2.8 

(1Q24)

  4.3 

  5.4 

(4Q22)

  3.9 

  4.4 

(4Q22)

  5.3 

  6.0 

(1Q23)

House price growth (%)

  1.6 

2.0

(0.7)

1.8

  3.1 

  6.3 

(1Q23)

  (1.2)

  (11.0)

(2Q23)

  2.0 

  (4.1)

(3Q23)

  (2.7)

  (20.3)

(1Q23)

Inflation rate (%)

  2.2 

2.1

2.1

2.1

  2.8 

  3.7 

(3Q22)

  1.3 

  0.0 

(2Q23)

  2.4 

  4.8 

(3Q22)

  0.7 

  (2.5)

(1Q23)

Probability

50

5

20

20

5

Mainland China

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GDP growth rate (%)

  4.9 

5.1

5.2

5.0

  6.4 

  11.0 

(1Q23)

  3.9 

  2.2 

(1Q23)

  4.8 

  3.4 

(1Q23)

  2.4 

  (5.4)

(1Q23)

Unemployment rate (%)

  3.8 

3.7

3.8

3.8

  3.7 

  3.5 

(4Q22)

  3.9 

  4.0 

(1Q24)

  3.8 

  3.9 

(1Q24)

  5.0 

  5.5 

(1Q24)

House price growth (%)

  3.9 

0.2

2.7

4.5

  5.2 

  7.5 

(1Q23)

  2.9 

  (3.2)

(3Q22)

  3.9 

  (2.4)

(3Q22)

  (1.7)

  (24.9)

(1Q23)

Inflation rate (%)

  2.2 

2.2

2.2

2.3

  3.0 

  5.3 

(2Q23)

  1.4 

  (0.6)

(3Q23)

  2.5 

  4.8 

(1Q23)

  0.4 

  (4.7)

(1Q23)

Probability

65

5

15

10

5

UK

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GDP growth rate (%)

  2.0 

4.6

2.2

1.6

  3.0 

  5.5 

(1Q23)

  1.0 

  (0.3)

(4Q23)

  1.8 

  (1.2)

(1Q23)

  1.2 

  (4.7)

(4Q22)

Unemployment rate (%)

  4.1 

4.2

4.1

4.1

  3.7 

  3.2 

(1Q24)

  4.5 

  5.0 

(1Q23)

  4.8 

  5.1 

(3Q23)

  6.9 

  8.7 

(2Q23)

House price growth (%)

  3.3 

6.6

3.2

3.0

  4.6 

  7.8 

(3Q22)

  1.0 

  (4.7)

(2Q23)

  2.4 

  (7.2)

(3Q23)

  (3.8)

  (14.4)

(3Q23)

Inflation rate (%)

  2.5 

5.2

2.5

2.2

  2.9 

  5.8 

(2Q22)

  2.1 

  1.1 

(1Q24)

  3.5 

  10.8 

(3Q22)

  0.7 

  (1.3)

(1Q24)

Probability

45

10

0

30

15

US

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GDP growth rate (%)

  2.3 

3.8

2.5

2.2

  3.4 

  6.1 

(3Q22)

  1.4 

  0.0 

(1Q23)

  2.3 

  0.5 

(4Q22)

  1.1 

  (4.5)

(1Q23)

Unemployment rate (%)

  3.6 

3.8

3.5

3.6

  3.3 

  3.1 

(3Q22)

  4.2 

  4.7 

(1Q24)

  4.1 

  5.2 

(4Q22)

  7.6 

  9.3 

(1Q24)

House price growth (%)

  5.2 

10.4

5.9

4.1

  5.8 

  10.7 

(2Q22)

  4.4 

  2.0 

(4Q23)

  5.0 

  3.8 

(1Q24)

  2.8 

  (7.2)

(1Q23)

Inflation rate (%)

  2.6 

5.0

2.5

2.3

  3.1 

  5.9 

(2Q22)

  2.0 

  1.0 

(1Q23)

  3.2 

  7.6 

(3Q22)

  1.6 

  (1.0)

(1Q23)

Probability

55

5

10

20

10

Note: The 'worst' or the 'best' outcome refers to the quarter that is either the trough or peak in the respective variable, in the first two years of the

scenario.

Scenario weights have changed from those applied at 31 December 2021. In light of increased uncertainty and financial and economic volatility, management have increased the weights assigned to Downside scenarios.

At 31 March 2022, the consensus Upside and Central scenarios for mainland China had a combined weighting of 70% (31 December 2021: 85%). In Hong Kong the combined weighting of the consensus Upside and Central scenarios was 55% (31 December 2021: 75%). For the UK, the combined weighting of the consensus Upside and Central scenarios was 55% (31 December 2021: 70%) and in the US the combined probability weighting for the consensus Upside and Central scenarios was 60% (31 December 2021: 80%).

Management judgemental adjustments

In the context of IFRS 9, management judgemental adjustments are typically short-term increases or decreases to the ECL at either a customer, segment or portfolio level to account for late-breaking events, model deficiencies and other assessments applied during management review and challenge.

Management judgemental adjustments are reviewed under the governance process for IFRS 9 (as detailed in the section 'Credit risk management' on page 137 of the Annual Report and Accounts 2021).

We have internal governance in place to monitor management judgemental adjustments regularly and, where possible, to reduce the reliance on these through model recalibration or redevelopment, as appropriate.

At 31 March 2022, management judgements included a Group-wide economic uncertainty overlay of $0.25bn (comprising $0.05bn in the retail portfolio and $0.2bn in the wholesale portfolio). This was made in addition to the increased weighting assigned to the Downside scenarios to reflect the heightened level of uncertainty resulting from the combination of risks including: a period of low economic growth with high inflation and higher unemployment, second-order impacts of the Russia-Ukraine war, geopolitical risks, Covid-19 restrictions in Asia and potential sovereign downgrades.

Management judgemental adjustments decreased by $0.5bn compared with 31 December 2021, with reductions in Covid-19-related provisions partly offset by increases in provisions relating to potential low economic growth with high inflation and higher unemployment, and broader macroeconomic and geopolitical risks.

Management judgemental adjustments made in estimating the reported ECL at 31 March 2022 are set out in the following table. It shows the adjustments applicable to the scenario-weighted ECL numbers.

Management judgemental adjustments to ECL at 31 March 20221

 

Retail

Wholesale

Total

 

$bn

$bn

$bn

Banks, sovereigns and government entities

 

  - 

  - 

Corporate lending adjustments

 

  0.9 

  0.9 

Group-wide economic uncertainty overlay

  0.1 

  0.2 

  0.3 

Macroeconomic-related adjustments

  (0.1)

 

  (0.1)

Pandemic-related economic recovery adjustments

  0.1 

 

  0.1 

Other retail lending adjustments

  - 

 

  - 

Total

  0.1 

  1.1 

  1.2 

 

Management judgemental adjustments to ECL at 31 December 20211

 

Retail

Wholesale

Total

 

$bn

$bn

$bn

Banks, sovereigns and government entities

 

  (0.1)

  (0.1)

Corporate lending adjustments

 

  1.3 

  1.3 

Group-wide economic uncertainty overlay

 

 

 

Macroeconomic-related adjustments

 

 

  - 

Pandemic-related economic recovery adjustments

  0.2 

 

  0.2 

Other retail lending adjustments

  0.3 

 

  0.3 

Total

  0.5 

  1.2 

  1.7 

1  Management judgemental adjustments presented in the table reflect increases or (decreases) to ECL, respectively.

In the wholesale portfolio, management judgemental adjustments were an ECL increase of $1.1bn at 31 March 2022 (31 December 2021: $1.2bn increase).

Adjustments to corporate exposures increased ECL by $0.9bn at 31 March 2022 (31 December 2021: $1.3bn increase). These principally reflected the outcome of management judgements for high-risk and vulnerable sectors in some of our key markets, supported by credit experts' input, portfolio risk metrics and quantitative analyses. The highest increase was observed on the real estate sector, including a material adjustment to reflect the uncertainty of the higher risk Chinese commercial real estate exposures, booked in Hong Kong. Adjustments also reflected the review of the credit risk profile of specific corporate exposures impacted by sanctions in response to the Russia-Ukraine war.

In the retail portfolio, management judgemental adjustments were an ECL increase of $0.1bn at 31 March 2022 (31 December 2021: $0.5bn increase).

Pandemic-related economic recovery adjustments increased ECL by $0.1bn (31 December 2021: $0.2bn) to adjust for the effects of the volatile pace of recovery from the pandemic where in management's judgement this leads to modelled outcomes that are overly sensitive given the limited observed deterioration in the underlying portfolio during the period. This adjustment decreased since 31 December 2021, and was made only for markets where there remain concerns regarding the re-emergence of Covid-19, primarily in Asia.

Macroeconomic-related adjustments decreased ECL by $0.1bn (31 December 2021: $0.0bn). These adjustments were primarily in relation to model oversensitivity as well as country-specific risks related to future macroeconomic conditions.

Economic scenarios sensitivity analysis of ECL estimates

Management considered the sensitivity of the ECL outcome against the economic forecasts as part of the ECL governance process by recalculating the ECL under each scenario described above for selected portfolios, applying a 100% weighting to each scenario in turn. The weighting is reflected in both the determination of a significant increase in credit risk and the measurement of the resulting ECL.

The ECL calculated for the Upside and Downside scenarios should not be taken to represent the upper and lower limits of possible ECL outcomes. The impact of defaults that might occur in the future under different economic scenarios is captured by recalculating ECL for loans in stages 1 and 2 at the balance sheet date. The population of stage 3 loans (in default) at the balance sheet date is unchanged in these sensitivity calculations. Stage 3 ECL would only be sensitive to changes in forecasts of future economic conditions if the loss-given default of a particular portfolio was sensitive to these changes.

There is a particularly high degree of estimation uncertainty in numbers representing tail risk scenarios when assigned a 100% weighting.

For wholesale credit risk exposures, the sensitivity analysis excludes ECL for financial instruments related to defaulted obligors because the measurement of ECL is relatively more sensitive to credit factors specific to the obligor than future economic scenarios. Therefore, it is impracticable to separate the effect of macroeconomic factors in individual assessments.

For retail credit risk exposures, the sensitivity analysis includes ECL for loans and advances to customers related to defaulted obligors. This is because the retail ECL for secured mortgage portfolios, including loans in all stages, is sensitive to macroeconomic variables.

Group ECL sensitivity results

The ECL impact of the scenarios and judgemental management adjustments are highly sensitive to movements in economic forecasts. If the Group ECL balance (excluding wholesale stage 3, which is assessed individually) was estimated solely on the basis of the consensus Central scenario, consensus Upside scenario, consensus Downside scenario, Downside 1 scenario or the Downside 2 scenario at 31 March 2022, it would increase/(decrease) as presented in the below sensitivity table.

 

Retail1

Wholesale2

Total Group ECL at 31 March 2022

$bn

$bn

Reported ECL

  2.9 

  2.8 

Scenarios

 

 

100% consensus Central scenario

  (0.4)

  (0.7)

100% consensus Upside scenario

  (0.7)

  (1.2)

100% consensus Downside scenario

  0.1 

  0.2 

100% Downside 1 scenario

  0.1 

  0.3 

100% Downside 2 scenario

  2.8 

  5.1 

 

 

 

 

 

Retail1

Wholesale2

Total Group ECL at 31 December 2021

$bn

$bn

Reported ECL

  3.0 

  3.1 

Scenarios

 

 

100% consensus Central scenario

  (0.2)

  (0.6)

100% consensus Upside scenario

  (0.5)

  (1.2)

100% consensus Downside scenario

  0.2 

  0.6 

100% Downside 1 scenario

 

 

100% Downside 2 scenario

  2.0 

  5.5 

1  ECL sensitivities exclude portfolios utilising less complex modelling approaches.

2  Includes low credit-risk financial instruments, such as debt instruments at FVOCI, which have high carrying values but low ECL under all the scenarios.

At 31 March 2022, Group reported ECL decreased modestly compared with 31 December 2021. This was in line with the decreases observed across most scenarios, which were partly offset by the greater weightings applied to the Downside scenarios to reflect the increased risk. The ECL changes in each of the scenarios vary between the retail portfolios and the wholesale portfolios, and across geographies, resulting in differences to ECL outcomes by scenario in each market accordingly.

 

Personal lending

Total personal lending for loans and advances to customers by stage distribution

 

Gross carrying amount

Allowance for ECL

 

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Total

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Total

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

By geography

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Europe

  206,887 

  7,983 

  1,849 

  216,719 

  (210)

  (634)

  (546)

  (1,390) 

-  of which: UK

  171,976 

  7,125 

  1,217 

  180,318 

  (182)

  (561)

  (321)

  (1,064)

Asia

  188,102 

  8,694 

  1,334 

  198,130 

  (143)

  (392)

  (226)

  (761)

-  of which: Hong Kong

  125,624 

  5,168 

  206 

  130,998 

  (58)

  (259)

  (45)

  (362)

MENA

  5,109 

  286 

  167 

  5,562 

  (33)

  (47)

  (85)

  (165)

North America

  43,797 

  2,199 

  574 

  46,570 

  (30)

  (87)

  (94)

  (211)

Latin America

  9,118 

  839 

  304 

  10,261 

  (213)

  (266)

  (158)

  (637)

At 31 Mar 2022

  453,013 

  20,001 

  4,228 

  477,242 

  (629)

  (1,426) 

  (1,109) 

  (3,164) 

 

By geography

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Europe

  212,284 

  5,639 

  2,148 

  220,071 

  (199) 

  (499) 

  (637) 

  (1,335) 

-  of which: UK

  176,547 

  4,668 

  1,488 

  182,703 

  (167)

  (480)

  (399)

  (1,046)

Asia

  187,391 

  7,796 

  1,303 

  196,490 

  (158) 

  (381) 

  (226) 

  (765) 

-  of which: Hong Kong

  125,854 

  4,959 

  202

  131,015 

  (65)

  (231)

  (43)

  (339)

MENA

  4,965 

  252

  202

  5,419 

  (38) 

  (40) 

  (94) 

  (172) 

North America

  43,489 

  2,126 

  1,005 

  46,620 

  (43) 

  (67) 

  (118) 

  (228) 

Latin America

  8,827 

  626

  284

  9,737 

  (220) 

  (232) 

  (151) 

  (603) 

At 31 Dec 2021

  456,956 

  16,439 

  4,942 

  478,337 

  (658) 

  (1,219) 

  (1,226) 

  (3,103) 

 

Wholesale lending

Total wholesale lending for loans and advances to banks and customers at amortised cost

 

Gross carrying amount

Allowance for ECL

 

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

POCI

Total

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

POCI

Total

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

By geography

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Europe

  160,790 

  28,535 

  6,765 

  31 

  196,121 

  (272) 

  (700) 

  (1,745) 

  (12) 

  (2,729) 

-  of which: UK

  112,581 

  17,902 

  4,983 

  28 

  135,494 

  (227)

  (378)

  (1,002)

  (9)

  (1,616)

Asia

  308,874 

  51,654 

  5,720 

  85 

  366,333 

  (228) 

  (639) 

  (2,683) 

  (25) 

  (3,575) 

-  of which: Hong Kong

  172,643 

  25,126 

  3,663 

  59 

  201,491 

  (120)

  (397)

  (1,186)

  (21)

  (1,724)

MENA

  26,665 

  4,634 

  1,574 

  21 

  32,894 

  (36) 

  (92) 

  (858) 

  (11) 

  (997) 

North America

  57,521 

  10,207 

  650 

  - 

  68,378 

  (51) 

  (183) 

  (162) 

  - 

  (396) 

Latin America

  12,742 

  2,312 

  773 

  23 

  15,850 

  (68) 

  (65) 

  (355) 

  (1) 

  (489) 

At 31 Mar 2022

  566,592 

  97,342 

  15,482 

  160 

  679,576 

  (655) 

  (1,679) 

  (5,803) 

  (49) 

  (8,186) 

 

By geography

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Europe

  154,575 

  31,871 

  6,741 

  30

  193,217 

  (356) 

  (654) 

  (1,806) 

  (9) 

  (2,825) 

-  of which: UK

  101,029 

  24,461 

  5,126 

  28

  130,644 

  (306)

  (518)

  (1,060)

  (6)

  (1,890)

Asia

  297,423 

  53,993 

  3,997 

  199

  355,612 

  (182) 

  (830) 

  (2,299) 

  (43) 

  (3,354) 

-  of which: Hong Kong

  165,437 

  30,305 

  1,990 

  159

  197,891 

  (85)

  (650)

  (836)

  (21)

  (1,592)

MENA

  26,135 

  5,295 

  1,682 

  22

  33,134 

  (62) 

  (108) 

  (1,028) 

  (11) 

  (1,209) 

North America

  53,513 

  10,397 

  652

  - 

  64,562 

  (57) 

  (215) 

  (169) 

  - 

  (441) 

Latin America

  11,970 

  2,746 

  783

  23

  15,522 

  (66) 

  (96) 

  (339) 

  (1) 

  (502) 

At 31 Dec 2021

  543,616 

  104,302 

  13,855 

  274

  662,047 

  (723) 

  (1,903) 

  (5,641) 

  (64) 

  (8,331) 

 

Capital risk

 

Capital overview

Capital adequacy metrics

 

 

At

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

 

2022

2021

Risk-weighted assets ('RWAs') ($bn)

 

 

Credit risk

  701.5 

680.6

Counterparty credit risk

  40.9 

35.9

Market risk

  32.2 

32.9

Operational risk

  87.7 

88.9

Total risk-weighted assets

  862.3 

838.3

Capital on a transitional basis ($bn)

 

 

Common equity tier 1 ('CET1') capital

  121.4 

132.6

Tier 1 capital

  143.9 

156.3

Total capital

  165.6 

177.8

Capital ratios on a transitional basis (%)

 

 

CET1

  14.1 

  15.8 

Tier 1

  16.7 

  18.6 

Total capital

  19.2 

  21.2 

Capital on an end point basis ($bn)

 

 

CET1 capital

  121.4 

132.6

Tier 1 capital

  143.9 

155.0

Total capital

  157.4 

167.5

Capital ratios on an end point basis (%)

 

 

CET1

  14.1 

  15.8 

Tier 1

  16.7 

  18.5 

Total capital

  18.3 

  20.0 

Liquidity coverage ratio ('LCR')

 

 

Total high-quality liquid assets ($bn)

  694.6 

717.0

Total net cash outflow ($bn)

  518.6 

518.0

LCR ratio (%)

  133.9 

  138.4 

 

Capital figures and ratios in the previous table are calculated in accordance with the revised Capital Requirements Regulation and Directive, as implemented ('CRR II'). The table presents them under the transitional arrangements in CRR II for capital instruments and after their expiry, known as the end point. The end point figures in the table above include the benefit of the regulatory transitional arrangements in CRR II for IFRS 9, which are more fully described below.

Where applicable, the figures also reflect government relief schemes intended to mitigate the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Capital 

At 31 March 2022, our common equity tier 1 ('CET1') capital ratio decreased to 14.1% from 15.8% at 31 December 2021, reflecting a decrease in CET1 capital of $11.2bn and an increase in RWAs of $24.0bn. The key drivers of this 1.7 percentage point fall in our CET1 ratio were:

a 0.8 percentage point impact from the UK's implementation of new regulatory requirements, which decreased CET1 by $3.2bn and increased RWAs by $27.1bn. These include new internal ratings-based ('IRB') modelling requirements, the deduction of intangible software assets from CET1, and the new standardised approach to counterparty credit risk exposure;

a 0.4 percentage point impact from the $3.1bn post-tax fall in the fair value of securities classified as hold to collect and sell; and

a 0.2 percentage point impact from RWA growth from asset size and asset quality movements of $12.2bn excluding the impact of foreign currency translation.

Other movements included the planned $1bn share buy-back announced in February 2022, and increased deductions for significant investments in financial sector entities (including the acquisition of AXA Singapore).

The background to the changes in regulatory requirements is as follows:

The changes to IRB modelling requirements known as 'IRB repair' form part of a Europe-wide programme to address concerns about undue variability of banks' approved internal credit risk models, and ensure comparability of the estimates of risk parameters, while retaining their risk sensitivity.

Following a period of consultation after the UK's withdrawal from the EU, the Prudential Regulation Authority ('PRA') has repealed measures introduced by the European Banking Authority ('EBA') allowing banks to recognise and risk-weight software development costs as a fixed asset.

The new standardised approach to counterparty credit exposure was developed as part of the Basel framework to address shortcomings in previous approaches that were not internally modelled. It forms part of the EU's CRR II package that the PRA adopted with effect from 1 January 2022.

Leverage

 

Leverage ratio1

 

 

 

At

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

 

2022

2021

 

$bn

$bn

Tier 1 capital

  143.9 

  155.0 

Total leverage ratio exposure

  2,532.9 

  2,962.7 

 

%

%

Leverage ratio

  5.7 

  5.2 

1  The CRR II regulatory transitional arrangements for IFRS 9 are applied in the leverage ratio calculation. This calculation is in line with the UK leverage rules that were implemented on 1 January 2022, and excludes central bank claims. Comparatives for 2021 are reported based on the disclosure rules in force at that time, and include claims on central banks.

Our leverage ratio was 5.7% at 31 March 2022, up from 5.2% at 31 December 2021. The improvement was primarily due to the exclusion of central bank claims following the implementation of the UK leverage ratio framework on 1 January 2022. This was partly offset by a decline in tier 1 capital.

At 31 March 2022, our UK minimum leverage ratio requirement of 3.25% was supplemented by a leverage ratio buffer of 0.8%, made up of an additional leverage ratio buffer of 0.7% and a countercyclical leverage ratio buffer of 0.1%. These buffers translated into capital values of $17.7bn and $2.5bn respectively. We exceeded these leverage requirements.

Risk-weighted assets

RWAs by global business

 

WPB

CMB

GBM

Corporate
Centre

Total

 

$bn

$bn

$bn

$bn

$bn

Credit risk

  155.6 

  311.9 

  155.4 

  78.6 

  701.5 

Counterparty credit risk

  1.0 

  0.6 

  38.8 

  0.5 

  40.9 

Market risk

  1.5 

  0.6 

  18.7 

  11.4 

  32.2 

Operational risk

  32.2 

  25.6 

  30.0 

  (0.1)

  87.7 

At 31 Mar 2022

  190.3 

  338.7 

  242.9 

  90.4 

  862.3 

At 31 Dec 2021

  178.3 

  332.9 

  236.2 

  90.9 

  838.3 

 

Risk-weighted assets ('RWAs') increased by $24.0bn during 1Q22, net of a decrease of $8.5bn due to foreign currency translation differences. The increase resulted from regulatory changes and lending growth, which more than offset reductions due to movements in book quality, model updates and disposals.

A $12.8bn increase in RWAs due to asset size movements mainly reflected CMB and GBM corporate loan growth, largely in Asia, the UK and Canada, which drove $9.3bn of additional RWAs. A rise in retail lending, mostly in Asia, generated $3.9bn of RWA growth. A $2.3bn rise in GBM counterparty credit risk RWAs was mainly due to higher volatility in Europe. Decreases in Corporate Centre credit risk and market risk RWAs partly offset these movements.

Book quality changes led to a $0.6bn fall in RWAs. A $1.1bn fall in RWAs in CMB was mostly caused by improved ratings in the UK and favourable changes in North America, which were partly offset in Hong Kong and mainland China due to credit migrations. A $0.9bn increase in Corporate Centre was predominantly related to exposures in Russia.

Methodology and policy changes led to an RWA increase of $23.4bn across the global businesses. Regulatory changes caused a rise of $27.1bn. These included revised IRB modelling requirements and the UK's implementation of the CRR II rules. These increases were partly offset by reductions due to risk parameter refinements in GBM, mostly in Europe and Asia, and the reversal of the beneficial changes to the treatment of software assets in Corporate Centre.

Other movements included the introduction of a counterparty credit risk equity model in GBM in Europe and our exit from mass market retail banking in the US through the sale of retail branches. These movements reduced RWAs by $3.1bn during 1Q22.

At 31 March 2022, our cumulative RWA saves as part of our transformation programme were $112bn. These included accelerated reductions of $9.6bn in 4Q19.

Regulatory developments

Changes will occur with the introduction of the remaining Basel III Reforms on which the PRA is expected to consult in the second half of 2022 for implementation from 1 January 2025. We currently do not foresee a material net impact on initial implementation. The RWA output floor under the Basel III reforms will be subject to a five-year transitional provision. Any impact from the output floor would be towards the end of the transition period.

Regulatory transitional arrangements for IFRS 9 'Financial Instruments'

We have adopted the regulatory transitional arrangements in CRR II for IFRS 9, including paragraph four of article 473a. Our capital and ratios are presented under these arrangements throughout the tables in this section, including in the end point figures. At 31 March 2022, the add-back to CET1 capital amounted to $0.5bn under the standardised approach with a tax impact of $0.1bn. As a result, our CET1 ratio would fall to 14.0% without these arrangements.

For further details, refer to our Pillar 3 Disclosures at 31 March 2022, which are expected to be published on or around 6 May 2022.

Alternative performance measures

 

Use of alternative performance measures

Our reported results are prepared in accordance with IFRSs as detailed in our financial statements starting on page 308 of the
Annual Report and Accounts 2021. We use a combination of reported and alternative performance measures, including those derived from our reported results that eliminate factors that distort period-on-period comparisons. These are considered alternative performance measures (non-GAAP financial measures).

The following information details the adjustments made to the reported results and the calculation of other alternative performance measures. All alternative performance measures are reconciled to the closest reported performance measure.

Return on average ordinary shareholders' equity and return on average tangible equity

Return on average ordinary shareholders' equity ('RoE') is computed by taking profit attributable to the ordinary shareholders of the parent company ('reported results'), divided by average ordinary shareholders' equity ('reported equity') for the period. The adjustment to reported results and reported equity excludes amounts attributable to non-controlling interests and holders of preference shares and other equity instruments.

Return on average tangible equity ('RoTE') is computed by adjusting reported results for the movements in the present value of in-force long-term insurance business ('PVIF') and for impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets (net of tax), divided by average reported equity adjusted for goodwill, intangibles and PVIF for the period.

Return on average tangible equity excluding significant items is annualised profit attributable to ordinary shareholders, excluding changes in PVIF and significant items (net of tax), divided by average tangible shareholders' equity excluding fair value of own debt, debt valuation adjustment ('DVA') and other adjustments for the period.

We provide RoTE ratios in addition to RoE as a way of assessing our performance, which is closely aligned to our capital position.

 

Return on average ordinary shareholders' equity and return on average tangible equity

 

Quarter ended

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

31 Mar

 

2022

2021

2021

 

$m

$m

$m

Profit

 

 

 

Profit attributable to the ordinary shareholders of the parent company

2,803

1,788

3,880

Impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets (net of tax)

4

591

-

Decrease/(increase) in PVIF (net of tax)

(183)

(6)

60

Profit attributable to the ordinary shareholders, excluding goodwill, other intangible assets impairment and PVIF

2,624

2,373

3,940

Significant items (net of tax) and other adjustments1

640

 

683

Profit attributable to the ordinary shareholders, excluding goodwill impairment, PVIF and significant items

3,264

 

4,623

Equity

 

 

 

Average ordinary shareholders' equity

174,858

175,783

174,923

Effect of goodwill, PVIF and other intangibles (net of deferred tax)

(17,844)

(17,831)

(17,523)

Average tangible equity

157,014

157,952

157,400

Fair value of own debt, DVA and other adjustments

2,357

 

1,641

Average tangible equity excluding fair value of own debt, DVA and other adjustments

159,371

 

159,041

Ratio

%

%

%

Return on average ordinary shareholders' equity (annualised)

6.5

4.0

9.0

Return on tangible equity (annualised)

6.8

6.0

10.2

Return on tangible equity excluding significant items (annualised)1

8.3

 

11.8

1  Other adjustments includes entries relating to the timing of payments on additional tier 1 coupons.

 

Return on average tangible equity by global business

 

Quarter ended 31 Mar 2022

 

Wealth
and Personal
Banking

Commercial
Banking

Global
Banking and
Markets

Corporate
Centre

Total

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

Profit before tax

  1,160 

  1,792 

  1,210 

  4 

  4,166 

Tax expense

  (283)

  (476)

  (262)

  298 

  (723)

Profit after tax

  877 

  1,316 

  948 

  302 

  3,443 

Less attributable to: preference shareholders, other equity holders, non-controlling interests

  (124)

  (156)

  (177)

  (183)

  (640)

Profit attributable to ordinary shareholders of the parent company

753

  1,160 

  771 

  119 

  2,803 

Decrease/(increase) in PVIF (net of tax)

  (181)

  (2)

  - 

  - 

  (183)

Significant items (net of tax)

  (26)

  24 

  18 

  459 

  475 

Other adjustments

  1 

  (1)

  - 

  169 

  169 

Profit attributable to ordinary shareholders, excluding PVIF and significant items

  547 

  1,181 

  789 

  747 

  3,264 

Average tangible shareholders' equity excluding fair value of own debt, DVA and other adjustments

  32,220 

  39,439 

  39,068 

  48,644 

  159,371 

RoTE excluding significant items (annualised) (%)

  6.9 

  12.1 

  8.2 

  6.2 

  8.3 

 

 

Quarter ended 31 Mar 2021

Profit before tax

  1,845 

  1,821 

  1,829 

  284

  5,779 

Tax expense

  (409) 

  (520) 

  (448) 

  166

  (1,211) 

Profit after tax

  1,436 

  1,301 

  1,381 

  450

  4,568 

Less attributable to: preference shareholders, other equity holders, non-controlling interests

  (182) 

  (179) 

  (188) 

  (139) 

  (688) 

Profit attributable to ordinary shareholders of the parent company

  1,254 

  1,122 

  1,193 

  311

  3,880 

Increase in PVIF (net of tax)

  54

  9

  - 

  (3) 

  60

Significant items (net of tax)

  55

  (16) 

  87

  411

  537

Other adjustments

  1

  (1) 

  - 

  146

  146

Profit attributable to ordinary shareholders, excluding PVIF and significant items

  1,364 

  1,114 

  1,280 

  865

  4,623 

Average tangible shareholders' equity excluding fair value of own debt, DVA and other adjustments

  29,357 

  39,394 

  42,909 

  47,381 

  159,041 

RoTE excluding significant items (annualised) (%)

  18.8 

  11.5 

  12.1 

  7.4 

  11.8 

 

Net asset value and tangible net asset value per ordinary share

Net asset value per ordinary share is total shareholders' equity less non-cumulative preference shares and capital securities ('total ordinary shareholders' equity'), divided by the number of ordinary shares in issue excluding shares that the company has purchased and are held in treasury.

Tangible net asset value per ordinary share is total ordinary shareholders' equity excluding goodwill, PVIF and other intangible assets (net of deferred tax) ('tangible ordinary shareholders' equity'), divided by the number of basic ordinary shares in issue excluding shares that the company has purchased and are held in treasury.

Net asset value and tangible net asset value per ordinary share

 

At

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

31 Mar

 

2022

2021

2021

 

$m

$m

$m

Total shareholders' equity

  196,293 

  198,250 

  199,210 

Preference shares and other equity instruments

  (22,414)

  (22,414)

  (24,414)

Total ordinary shareholders' equity

  173,879 

  175,836 

  174,796 

Goodwill, PVIF and intangible assets (net of deferred tax)

  (18,046)

  (17,643)

  (17,439)

Tangible ordinary shareholders' equity

  155,833 

  158,193 

  157,357 

Basic number of $0.50 ordinary shares outstanding

  19,968 

  20,073 

  20,226 

Value per share

$

$

$

Net asset value per ordinary share

8.71

  8.76 

  8.64 

Tangible net asset value per ordinary share

7.80

  7.88 

  7.78 

 

Expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges as % of average gross loans and advances to customers

Expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges ('ECL') as % of average gross loans and advances to customers is the annualised adjusted ECL divided by adjusted average gross loans and advances to customers for the period.

The adjusted numbers are derived by adjusting reported ECL and loans and advances to customers for the effects of foreign currency translation differences.

Expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges as % of average gross loans and advances to customers

 

Quarter ended

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

31 Mar

 

2022

2021

2021

 

$m

$m

$m

Expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges ('ECL')

  (642)

  (450)

  435

Currency translation

 

  (1)

  (15)

Adjusted ECL

  (642)

  (451)

  420

Average gross loans and advances to customers

  1,061,918 

  1,054,209 

  1,053,134 

Currency translation

  (6,029)

  (12,209)

  (26,073)

Average gross loans and advances to customers - at most recent balance sheet foreign exchange rates

  1,055,889 

  1,042,000 

  1,027,061 

Ratio

%

%

%

Expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges as % of average gross loans and advances to customers

  0.25 

  0.17 

  (0.17)

 

 

Reconciliation of reported and adjusted results

 

Reconciliation of reported and adjusted results

 

Quarter ended

 

31 Mar

31 Dec

31 Mar

 

2022

2021

2021

 

$m

$m

$m

Revenue1

 

 

 

Reported

  12,464 

  11,989 

  12,986 

Currency translation

 

  (71)

  (309)

Significant items

  85 

  102

  285

-  customer redress programmes

  2 

  7

  (18)

-  fair value movements on financial instruments2

  162 

  (16)

  239

-  restructuring and other related costs3

  (79)

  112

  66

-  currency translation of significant items

 

  (1)

  (2)

Adjusted

  12,549 

  12,020 

  12,962 

Change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges

 

 

 

Reported

  (642)

  (450)

  435

Currency translation

 

  (1)

  (15)

Adjusted

  (642)

  (451)

  420

Operating expenses

 

 

 

Reported

  (8,312)

  (9,544)

  (8,527)

Currency translation

 

  47

  213

Significant items

  455 

  1,201 

  316

-  customer redress programmes

  4 

  25

  (10)

-  impairment of goodwill and other intangibles

  - 

  587

  - 

-  restructuring and other related costs

  451 

  591

  334

-  currency translation of significant items

 

  (2)

  (8)

Adjusted

  (7,857)

  (8,296)

  (7,998)

Share of profit/(loss) in associates and joint ventures

 

 

 

Reported

  656 

  669

  885

Currency translation

 

  3

  11

Adjusted

  656 

  672

  896

Profit before tax

 

 

 

Reported

  4,166 

  2,664 

  5,779 

Currency translation

 

  (22)

  (100)

Significant items4

  540 

  1,303 

  601

-  revenue

  85 

  102

  285

-  operating expenses

  455 

  1,201 

  316

Adjusted

  4,706 

  3,945 

  6,280 

Loans and advances to customers (net)

 

 

 

Reported

  1,055,307 

  1,045,814 

  1,040,207 

Currency translation

 

  (11,913)

  (23,512)

Adjusted

  1,055,307 

  1,033,901 

  1,016,695 

Customer accounts

 

 

 

Reported

  1,709,685 

  1,710,574 

  1,650,019 

Currency translation

 

  (22,065)

  (38,799)

Adjusted

  1,709,685 

  1,688,509 

  1,611,220 

1  Net operating income before change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges, also referred to as revenue.

2  Includes fair value movements on non-qualifying hedges and debt valuation adjustments on derivatives.

3  Comprises gains and losses relating to the business update in February 2020, including losses associated with the RWA reduction commitments.

4  Tax on significant items at reported rates of foreign exchange was a charge of $65m in 1Q22 (4Q21: $101m, 1Q21: $74m).

Reconciliation of reported and adjusted results - global businesses

Analysis of significant items by global business is presented below.

Reconciliation of reported results to adjusted results - global businesses

 

Quarter ended 31 Mar 2022

 

Wealth and
Personal
Banking

Commercial
Banking

Global
Banking and
Markets

Corporate
Centre

Total

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

Revenue1

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  5,322 

  3,534 

  4,027 

  (419)

  12,464 

Significant items

  (91)

  (1)

  (15)

  192 

  85 

-  customer redress programmes

  2 

  - 

  - 

  - 

  2 

-  fair value movements on financial instruments2

  (1)

  (1)

  (30)

  194 

  162 

-  restructuring and other related costs3

  (92)

  - 

  15 

  (2)

  (79)

Adjusted

  5,231 

  3,533 

  4,012 

  (227)

  12,549 

ECL

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  (342)

  12 

  (310)

  (2)

  (642)

Adjusted

  (342)

  12 

  (310)

  (2)

  (642)

Operating expenses

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  (3,828)

  (1,754)

  (2,507)

  (223)

  (8,312)

Significant items

  54 

  30 

  38 

  333 

  455 

-  customer redress programmes

  2 

  - 

  - 

  2 

  4 

-  restructuring and other related costs

  52 

  30 

  38 

  331 

  451 

Adjusted

  (3,774)

  (1,724)

  (2,469)

  110 

  (7,857)

Share of profit in associates and joint ventures

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  8 

  - 

  - 

  648 

  656 

Adjusted

  8 

  - 

  - 

  648 

  656 

Profit before tax

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  1,160 

  1,792 

  1,210 

  4 

  4,166 

Significant items

  (37)

  29 

  23 

  525 

  540 

-  revenue

  (91)

  (1)

  (15)

  192 

  85 

-  operating expenses

  54 

  30 

  38 

  333 

  455 

Adjusted

  1,123 

  1,821 

  1,233 

  529 

  4,706 

Loans and advances to customers (net)

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  487,572 

  354,695 

  212,615 

  425 

  1,055,307 

Adjusted

  487,572 

  354,695 

  212,615 

  425 

  1,055,307 

Customer accounts

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  861,497 

  499,304 

  348,289 

  595 

  1,709,685 

Adjusted

  861,497 

  499,304 

  348,289 

  595 

  1,709,685 

1  Net operating income before change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges, also referred to as revenue.

2  Includes fair value movements on non-qualifying hedges and debt valuation adjustments on derivatives.

3  Comprises gains and losses relating to the business update in February 2020, including losses associated with the RWA reduction commitments.

Reconciliation of reported and adjusted items - global businesses (continued)

 

Quarter ended 31 Mar 2021

 

Wealth and
Personal
Banking

Commercial
Banking

Global
Banking and
Markets

Corporate
Centre

Total

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

Revenue1

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  5,693 

  3,349 

  4,215 

  (271)

  12,986 

Currency translation

  (128)

  (82)

  (114)

  15

  (309)

Significant items

  1

  (18)

  75

  227

  285

-  customer redress programmes

  1

  (19)

  - 

  - 

  (18)

-  fair value movements on financial instruments2

  - 

  (1)

  12

  228

  239

-  restructuring and other related costs3

  - 

  2

  65

  (1)

  66

-  currency translation on significant items

  - 

  - 

  (2)

  - 

  (2)

Adjusted

  5,566 

  3,249 

  4,176 

  (29)

  12,962 

ECL

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  18

  230

  190

  (3)

  435

Currency translation

  (4)

  (9)

  (3)

  1

  (15)

Adjusted

  14

  221

  187

  (2)

  420

Operating expenses

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  (3,874)

  (1,759)

  (2,576)

  (318)

  (8,527)

Currency translation

  100

  46

  82

  (15)

  213

Significant items

  66

  2

  29

  219

  316

-  customer redress programmes

  (12)

  - 

  - 

  2

  (10)

-  restructuring and other related costs

  80

  3

  29

  222

  334

-  currency translation on significant items

  (2)

  (1)

  - 

  (5)

  (8)

Adjusted

  (3,708)

  (1,711)

  (2,465)

  (114)

  (7,998)

Share of profit in associates and joint ventures

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  8

  1

  - 

  876

  885

Currency translation

  - 

  - 

  - 

  11

  11

Adjusted

  8

  1

  - 

  887

  896

Profit before tax

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  1,845 

  1,821 

  1,829 

  284

  5,779 

Currency translation

  (32)

  (45)

  (35)

  12

  (100)

Significant items

  67

  (16)

  104

  446

  601

-  revenue

  1

  (18)

  75

  227

  285

-  operating expenses

  66

  2

  29

  219

  316

Adjusted

  1,880 

  1,760 

  1,898 

  742

  6,280 

Loans and advances to customers (net)

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  474,260 

  343,623 

  221,223 

  1,101 

  1,040,207 

Currency translation

  (11,549)

  (7,674)

  (4,254)

  (35)

  (23,512)

Adjusted

  462,711 

  335,949 

  216,969 

  1,066 

  1,016,695 

Customer accounts

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  842,532 

  470,872 

  335,823 

  792

  1,650,019 

Currency translation

  (18,885)

  (11,087)

  (8,790)

  (37)

  (38,799)

Adjusted

  823,647 

  459,785 

  327,033 

  755

  1,611,220 

1  Net operating income before change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges, also referred to as revenue.

2  Includes fair value movements on non-qualifying hedges and debt valuation adjustments on derivatives.

3  Comprises losses associated with the RWA reduction commitments we made at our business update in February 2020.

Reconciliation of reported and adjusted items - global businesses (continued)

 

Quarter ended 31 Dec 2021

 

Wealth and
Personal
Banking

Commercial
Banking

Global
Banking and
Markets

Corporate
Centre

Total

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

Revenue1

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  5,301 

  3,387 

  3,374 

  (73)

  11,989 

Currency translation

  (25)

  (24)

  (28)

  6

  (71)

Significant items

  (9)

  2

  146

  (37)

  102

-  customer redress programmes

  6

  1

  - 

  - 

  7

-  fair value movements on financial instruments2

  - 

  - 

  15

  (31)

  (16)

-  restructuring and other related costs3

  (15)

  1

  131

  (5)

  112

-  currency translation on significant items

  - 

  - 

  - 

  (1)

  (1)

Adjusted

  5,267 

  3,365 

  3,492 

  (104)

  12,020 

ECL

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  (1)

  (221)

  (224)

  (4)

  (450)

Currency translation

  (2)

  1

  - 

  - 

  (1)

Adjusted

  (3)

  (220)

  (224)

  (4)

  (451)

Operating expenses

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  (4,687)

  (1,805)

  (2,763)

  (289)

  (9,544)

Currency translation

  20

  10

  20

  (3)

  47

Significant items

  672

  30

  76

  423

  1,201 

-  customer redress programmes

  21

  1

  - 

  3

  25

-  impairment of goodwill and other intangibles

  587

  - 

  - 

  - 

  587

-  restructuring and other related costs

  63

  29

  77

  422

  591

-  currency translation on significant items

  1

  - 

  (1)

  (2)

  (2)

Adjusted

  (3,995)

  (1,765)

  (2,667)

  131

  (8,296)

Share of profit in associates and joint ventures

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  10

  - 

  - 

  659

  669

Currency translation

  - 

  - 

  - 

  3

  3

Adjusted

  10

  - 

  - 

  662

  672

Profit before tax

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  623

  1,361 

  387

  293

  2,664 

Currency translation

  (7)

  (13)

  (8)

  6

  (22)

Significant items

  663

  32

  222

  386

  1,303 

-  revenue

  (9)

  2

  146

  (37)

  102

-  operating expenses

  672

  30

  76

  423

  1,201 

Adjusted

  1,279 

  1,380 

  601

  685

  3,945 

Loans and advances to customers (net)

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  488,786 

  349,126 

  207,162 

  740

  1,045,814 

Currency translation

  (6,082)

  (3,861)

  (1,954)

  (16)

  (11,913)

Adjusted

  482,704 

  345,265 

  205,208 

  724

  1,033,901 

Customer accounts

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  859,029 

  506,688 

  344,205 

  652

  1,710,574 

Currency translation

  (10,575)

  (6,404)

  (5,068)

  (18)

  (22,065)

Adjusted

  848,454 

  500,284 

  339,137 

  634

  1,688,509 

1  Net operating income before change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges, also referred to as revenue.

2  Includes fair value movements on non-qualifying hedges and debt valuation adjustments on derivatives.

3  Comprises losses associated with the RWA reduction commitments and gains relating to the business update in February 2020.

Reconciliation of reported and adjusted risk-weighted assets

The following table reconciles reported and adjusted risk-weighted assets ('RWAs').

Reconciliation of reported and adjusted risk-weighted assets

 

At 31 Mar 2022

 

Wealth
and Personal
Banking

Commercial
Banking

Global
Banking and
Markets

Corporate
Centre

Total

 

$bn

$bn

$bn

$bn

$bn

Risk-weighted assets

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  190.3 

  338.7 

  242.9 

  90.4 

  862.3 

Adjusted1

  190.3 

  338.7 

  242.9 

  90.4 

  862.3 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At 31 Dec 2021

Risk-weighted assets

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  178.3 

  332.9 

  236.2 

  90.9 

  838.3 

Currency translation

  (2.0) 

  (4.1) 

  (2.0) 

  (0.4) 

  (8.5) 

Adjusted1

  176.3 

  328.8 

  234.2 

  90.5 

  829.8 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At 31 Mar 2021

Risk-weighted assets

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  171.9 

  326.8 

  254.6 

  93.5 

  846.8 

Currency translation

  (3.6) 

  (7.7) 

  (4.3) 

  (0.9) 

  (16.5) 

Adjusted1

  168.3 

  319.1 

  250.3 

  92.6 

  830.3 

1  Adjusted risk-weighted assets are calculated using reported risk-weighted assets adjusted for the effects of currency translation differences and material significant items.

Reconciliation of reported and adjusted results - geographical regions

Analysis of significant items by geographical regions is presented below.

Reconciliation of reported results to adjusted results - geographical regions

 

Quarter ended 31 Mar 2022

 

Europe

Asia

MENA

North
America

Latin
America

Total

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

Revenue1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reported2

  4,785 

  6,129 

  724 

  1,637 

  825 

  12,464 

Significant items2

  108 

  (67)

  (1)

  (101)

  1 

  85 

-  customer redress programmes

  2 

  - 

  - 

  - 

  - 

  2 

-  fair value movements on financial instruments3

  184 

  (20)

  (1)

  (2)

  1 

  162 

-  restructuring and other related costs2,4

  (78)

  (47)

  - 

  (99)

  - 

  (79)

Adjusted2

  4,893 

  6,062 

  723 

  1,536 

  826 

  12,549 

ECL

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  (329)

  (311)

  43 

  58 

  (103)

  (642)

Adjusted

  (329)

  (311)

  43 

  58 

  (103)

  (642)

Operating expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reported2

  (4,178)

  (3,694)

  (380)

  (1,142)

  (554)

  (8,312)

Significant items2

  385 

  120 

  12 

  63 

  20 

  455 

-  customer redress programmes

  4 

  - 

  - 

  - 

  - 

  4 

-  restructuring and other related costs2

  381 

  120 

  12 

  63 

  20 

  451 

Adjusted2

  (3,793)

  (3,574)

  (368)

  (1,079)

  (534)

  (7,857)

Share of profit in associates and joint ventures

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  (25)

  680 

  (2)

  - 

  3 

  656 

Adjusted

  (25)

  680 

  (2)

  - 

  3 

  656 

Profit before tax

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  253 

  2,804 

  385 

  553 

  171 

  4,166 

Significant items

  493 

  53 

  11 

  (38)

  21 

  540 

-  revenue2

  108 

  (67)

  (1)

  (101)

  1 

  85 

-  operating expenses2

  385 

  120 

  12 

  63 

  20 

  455 

Adjusted

  746 

  2,857 

  396 

  515 

  192 

  4,706 

Loans and advances to customers (net)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  395,724 

  498,121 

  26,708 

  112,660 

  22,094 

  1,055,307 

Adjusted

  395,724 

  498,121 

  26,708 

  112,660 

  22,094 

  1,055,307 

Customer accounts

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  665,604 

  794,717 

  43,873 

  174,376 

  31,115 

  1,709,685 

Adjusted

  665,604 

  794,717 

  43,873 

  174,376 

  31,115 

  1,709,685 

1  Net operating income before change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges, also referred to as revenue.

2  Amounts are non-additive across geographical regions due to inter-company transactions within the Group.

3  Includes fair value movements on non-qualifying hedges and debt valuation adjustments on derivatives.

4  Comprises gains and losses relating to the business update in February 2020, including losses associated with the RWA reduction commitments.

Reconciliation of reported to adjusted results - geographical regions (continued)

 

Quarter ended 31 Mar 2021

 

Europe

Asia

MENA

North
America

Latin
America

Total

 

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

$m

Revenue1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reported2

  5,052 

  6,774 

  632

  1,549 

  712

  12,986 

Currency translation2

  (193)

  (75)

  (39)

  - 

  (23)

  (309)

Significant items

  232

  (23)

  - 

  - 

  6

  285

-  customer redress programmes

  (18)

  - 

  - 

  - 

  - 

  (18)

-  fair value movements on financial instruments3

  236

  2

  - 

  - 

  1

  239

-  restructuring and other related costs2,4

  17

  (26)

  - 

  - 

  5

  66

-  currency translation on significant items

  (3)

  1

  - 

  - 

  - 

  (2)

Adjusted2

  5,091 

  6,676 

  593

  1,549 

  695

  12,962 

ECL

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  337

  (32)

  55

  104

  (29)

  435

Currency translation

  (8)

  (1)

  (5)

  - 

  (1)

  (15)

Adjusted

  329

  (33)

  50

  104

  (30)

  420

Operating expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reported2

  (4,527)

  (3,694)

  (388)

  (1,169)

  (482)

  (8,527)

Currency translation2

  152

  39

  23

  - 

  20

  213

Significant items

  272

  57

  11

  38

  8

  316

-  customer redress programmes

  (10)

  - 

  - 

  - 

  - 

  (10)

-  restructuring and other related costs2

  287

  59

  11

  38

  9

  334

-  currency translation on significant items

  (5)

  (2)

  - 

  - 

  (1)

  (8)

Adjusted2

  (4,103)

  (3,598)

  (354)

  (1,131)

  (454)

  (7,998)

Share of profit in associates and joint ventures

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  135

  710

  38

  - 

  2

  885

Currency translation

  (4)

  15

  - 

  - 

  - 

  11

Adjusted

  131

  725

  38

  - 

  2

  896

Profit before tax

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  997

  3,758 

  337

  484

  203

  5,779 

Currency translation

  (53)

  (22)

  (21)

  - 

  (4)

  (100)

Significant items

  504

  34

  11

  38

  14

  601

-  revenue2

  232

  (23)

  - 

  - 

  6

  285

-  operating expenses2

  272

  57

  11

  38

  8

  316

Adjusted

  1,448 

  3,770 

  327

  522

  213

  6,280 

Loans and advances to customers (net)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  405,493 

  478,477 

  28,176 

  108,751 

  19,310 

  1,040,207 

Currency translation

  (19,391)

  (2,912)

  (1,626)

  131

  286

  (23,512)

Adjusted

  386,102 

  475,565 

  26,550 

  108,882 

  19,596 

  1,016,695 

Customer accounts

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reported

  643,162 

  756,498 

  41,916 

  182,576 

  25,867 

  1,650,019 

Currency translation

  (30,586)

  (5,611)

  (2,764)

  146

  16

  (38,799)

Adjusted

  612,576 

  750,887 

  39,152 

  182,722 

  25,883 

  1,611,220 

1  Net operating income before change in expected credit losses and other credit impairment charges, also referred to as revenue.

2  Amounts are non-additive across geographical regions due to inter-company transactions within the Group.

3  Includes fair value movements on non-qualifying hedges and debt valuation adjustments on derivatives.

4  Comprises losses associated with the RWA reduction commitments we made at our business update in February 2020.

Reconciliation of reported to adjusted results - geographical regions (continued)

 

Quarter ended 31 Dec 2021

 

Europe

Asia

MENA

North
America

Latin</